Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report
Part G. Section 9: Youth

Table G9.A5.   Body Composition, Experimental Studies In Children and Adolescents of Normal Weight or Mixed Weight Status.

Part 1. Randomized Controlled Trials

Reference

Subjects/Duration

Results

Eliakim et al., 1996 (1)

N=44, 100% F, 15-17 years, 68% white, 20% Asian, 11% Hispanic , Duration: 5 weeks

No significant effect on BMI, but increase in thigh muscle volume

Eliakim et al., 1997 (2)

N=44, 100% F, 15-17 years, 61% white, 20% Asian, 18% Hispanic, Duration: 5 weeks

No significant effect on BMI, but increase in thigh muscle volume

Eliakim et al., 1998 (3)

N=44, 100% M, 15-17 years, 71% Asian, 20% white, 9% Hispanic, Duration: 5 weeks

Small significant increase in weight and thigh muscle volume

Ewart et al., 1998 (4)

N=88, 100% F, 70% AA, Duration: 18 weeks

No change in BMI in either group

Eliakim et al., 2000 (5)

N=44, 100% M, 15-17 years, 71% Asian, 20% white, 9% Hispanic, Duration: 5 weeks

Small decrease in thigh fat and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

MacKelvie et al., 2001 (6)

Group Randomized Trial

N=177, 100% F, Duration: 1 school year (< 10 months)

No effect of high-impact brief activity on weight and fat mass

Mandigout et al., 2002 (7)

Group Randomized Trial

N=19, 47% F, 10-11 years, Duration: 13 weeks

No effect on percent fat mass and percent muscle mass

MacKelvie et al., 2003 (8)

Group Randomized Trial

N=139, 54% F, 9-10 years, Duration: 2 school years

Females: No effect on weight and fat mass. Males: No effect on weight and fat mass, significant increase in total body lean mass

Obert et al., 2003 (9)

Group Randomized Trial

N=35, 49% F, 10-11 years, Duration: 13 weeks

No effect on percent fat

Tolfrey et al., 2004 (10)

N=32, 44% F, 10.6±0.6 years, Duration: 12 weeks

Negligible effects of training on weight and skinfolds

Baquet et al., 2004 (11)

Group Randomized Trial

N=110, 58% F, 8-11 years, Duration: 7 weeks

No difference in body weight and percent fat

Fitzgibbon et al., 2005 (12)

Group Randomized Trial

N=409, about 4 years at baseline, 80%+ AA, Duration: 14 weeks

Smaller gain in BMI in intervention preschoolers

Haerens et al., 2006(13)

Group Randomized Trial

N=2,840, mean age 13.1±0.8, Duration: 2 school years

Smaller gain in BMI in intervention and parent support group

AA, African American; BMI, body mass index; F, female; M, male; N, number

Part 2. Non-Randomized Controlled Trials

Reference

Subjects/Duration

Results

Williford et al., 1996 (14)

N=17, 0% F, 11-13 years, 100% AA, Duration: 15 weeks

No effect on weight and sum of skinfold thicknesses

Stoedefalke et al., 2000 (15)

N=34, 100% F, 13-14 years, Duration: 20 weeks

No effect on skinfold thicknesses

Baquet et al., 2001 (16)

N=551, 47% F, 11-16 years, Duration: 10 weeks

Small increase BMI and percent fat

Sundberg et al., 2001 (17)

N=228, 46% F, 12-16 years, Duration: 3‑4 years

No effect of added physical education on fat mass and lean body mass

Baquet et al., 2002 (18)

N=53, 57% F, 9.7±0.8 years, Duration: 7 weeks

No difference in body weight and percent fat

Annesi et al., 2005 (19)

N=570, 40% F, 5-12 years, >95% AA, Duration: 12 weeks

Significant decrease in percent fat

Schneider et al., 2007 (20)

N=122, 100% F, 10th-11th, Duration: 1 school year

No effect on percent fat

Viskic-Stalec et al., 2007 (21)

N=220, 100% F, 16-18 years, Duration: 1 school year

Larger declines in weight and percent fat in Experimental group than in Control group

AA, African American; BMI, body mass index; F, female; N, number

Reference List

  1. Eliakim A, Barstow TJ, Brasel JA, Ajie H, Lee WN, Renslo R, Berman N, Cooper DM. Effect of exercise training on energy expenditure, muscle volume, and maximal oxygen uptake in female adolescents. J.Pediatr. 1996 Oct;129(4):537-43.
  2. Eliakim A, Burke GS, Cooper DM. Fitness, fatness, and the effect of training assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and skinfold-thickness measurements in healthy adolescent females. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997 Aug;66(2):223-31.
  3. Eliakim A, Brasel JA, Mohan S, Wong WL, Cooper DM. Increased physical activity and the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in adolescent males. Am.J.Physiol 1998 Jul;275(1 Pt 2):R308-R314.
  4. Ewart CK, Young DR, Hagberg JM. Effects of school-based aerobic exercise on blood pressure in adolescent girls at risk for hypertension. Am.J.Public Health 1998 Jun;88(6):949-51.
  5. Eliakim A, Makowski GS, Brasel JA, Cooper DM. Adiposity, lipid levels, and brief endurance training in nonobese adolescent males. Int.J.Sports Med. 2000 Jul;21(5):332-7.
  6. MacKelvie K, McKay HA, Khan KM, Crocker PR. A school-based exercise intervention augments bone mineral accrual in early pubertal girls. J.Pediatr. 2001 Oct;139(4):501-8.
  7. Mandigout S, Melin A, Fauchier L, N'Guyen LD, Courteix D, Obert P. Physical training increases heart rate variability in healthy prepubertal children. Eur.J.Clin.Invest 2002 Jul;32(7):479-87.
  8. MacKelvie KJ, Khan KM, Petit MA, Janssen PA, McKay HA. A school-based exercise intervention elicits substantial bone health benefits: a 2-year randomized controlled trial in girls. Pediatrics 2003 Dec;112(6 Pt 1):e447.
  9. Obert P, Mandigouts S, Nottin S, Vinet A, N'Guyen LD, Lecoq AM. Cardiovascular responses to endurance training in children: effect of gender. Eur.J.Clin.Invest 2003 Mar;33(3):199-208.
  10. Tolfrey K, Jones AM, Campbell IG. Lipid-lipoproteins in children: an exercise dose-response study. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2004 Mar;36(3):418-27.
  11. Baquet G, Guinhouya C, Dupont G, Nourry C, Berthoin S. Effects of a short-term interval training program on physical fitness in prepubertal children. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2004 Nov;18(4):708-13.
  12. Fitzgibbon ML, Stolley MR, Schiffer L, Van HL, KauferChristoffel K, Dyer A. Two-year follow-up results for Hip-Hop to Health Jr.: a randomized controlled trial for overweight prevention in preschool minority children. J.Pediatr. 2005 May;146(5):618-25.
  13.  Haerens L, Deforche B, Maes L, Stevens V, Cardon G, De B, I. Body mass effects of a physical activity and healthy food intervention in middle schools. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2006 May;14(5):847-54.
  14.  Williford HN, Blessing DL, Scharff-Olson M, Brown J. Injury rates and physiological changes associated with lateral motion training in females. Int.J.Sports Med. 1996 Aug;17(6):452-7.
  15. Stoedefalke K, Armstrong N, Kirby BJ, Welsman JR. Effect of training on peak oxygen uptake and blood lipids in 13 to 14-year-old girls. Acta Paediatr. 2000 Nov;89(11):1290-4.
  16.  Baquet G, Berthoin S, Gerbeaux M, van PE. High-intensity aerobic training during a 10 week one-hour physical education cycle: effects on physical fitness of adolescents aged 11 to 16. Int.J.Sports Med. 2001 May;22(4):295-300.
  17. Sundberg M, Gardsell P, Johnell O, Karlsson MK, Ornstein E, Sandstedt B, Sernbo I. Peripubertal moderate exercise increases bone mass in boys but not in girls: a population-based intervention study. Osteoporos.Int. 2001;12(3):230-8.
  18. Baquet G, Berthoin S, Dupont G, Blondel N, Fabre C, van PE. Effects of high intensity intermittent training on peak VO(2) in prepubertal children. Int.J.Sports Med. 2002 Aug;23(6):439-44.
  19.  Annesi JJ, Westcott WL, Faigenbaum AD, Unruh JL. Effects of a 12-week physical activity protocol delivered by YMCA after-school counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on fitness and self-efficacy changes in 5-12-year-old boys and girls. Res.Q.Exerc.Sport 2005 Dec;76(4):468-76.
  20. Schneider M, Dunton GF, Bassin S, Graham DJ, Eliakim AF, Cooper DM. Impact of a school-based physical activity intervention on fitness and bone in adolescent females. J.Phys.Act.Health 2007 Jan;4(1):17-29.
  21. Viskic-Stalec N, Stalec J, Katic R, Podvorac D, Katovic D. The impact of dance-aerobics training on the morpho-motor status in female high-schoolers. Coll.Antropol. 2007 Mar;31(1):259-66.

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