Appendix G-1: Glossary of Terms
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution
of intake for a particular energy source that is associated
with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing intakes
of essential nutrients. If an individual consumes in excess
of the AMDR, there is a potential of increasing the risk
of chronic diseases and/or insufficient intakes of essential
nutrients. (IOM, 2003)
Added Sugars—Sugars and syrups that are added to foods during
processing or preparation. Added sugars do not include naturally
occurring sugars such as lactose in milk or fructose in fruits.
Adequate Intakes (AI)—A recommended average daily nutrient
intake level based on observed or experimentally determined
approximations or estimates of mean nutrient intake by a
group (or groups)of apparently healthy people. This is used
when the Recommended Dietary Allowance cannot be determined.
Atherogenic Dyslipidemia—Three lipid abnormalities: elevated
triglycerides, small low-density lipoprotein particles, and
reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Calorie Compensation (or Energy
to regulate energy intake with minimal conscious effort,
such as reducing the amount of food consumed on some occasions
to compensate for increased consumption at other times.
Complex Carbohydrates—Large chains of sugar units arranged
to form starches and fiber. Complex carbohydrates include
vegetables, whole fruits, rice, pasta, potatoes, grains (brown
rice, oats, wheat, barley, corn), and legumes (chick peas,
black-eyed peas, lentils, as well as beans such as lima,
kidney, pinto, soy, and black beans).
Daily Food Intake Pattern—Identifies the types and amounts
of foods that are recommended to be eaten each day and that
meet specific nutritional goals. (Federal Register Notice,
vol. 68, no. 176, p. 53536, Thursday, September 11, 2003)
Danger Zone—The temperature that allows bacteria to multiply
rapidly and produce toxins, between 40°F and 140°F. To
keep food out of this "danger zone," keep cold food cold
and hot food hot. Keep food cold in the refrigerator, in
coolers, or on ice in the service line. Keep hot food in
the oven, in heated chafing dishes, or in preheated steam
tables, warming trays, and/or slow cookers. Never leave perishable
foods, such as meat, poultry, eggs, and casseroles, in the
"danger zone" over 2 hours; 1 hour in temperatures above
Deodorization—A process that uses high vacuum and superheated
steam in the washing of fats and oils. Deodorization removes
from fats and oils materials originally present or introduced
during previous processing that would contribute objectionable
flavors and odors to the finished products. (United Soybean
Board, The Soy Glossary)
Dietary Fiber—Nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that
are intrinsic and intact in plants.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)—A set of nutrient-based
reference values that expand upon and replace the former
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in the United States
and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) in Canada. They
are actually a set of four reference values: Estimated Average
Requirements (EARs), RDAs, AIs, and Tolerable Upper Intake
Levels (ULs). (IOM, 2003)
Discretionary Calories—The balance of calories remaining
in a person's "energy allowance" after consuming sufficient
nutrient-dense forms of foods to meet all nutrient needs
for a day. Discretionary calories may be used in selecting
forms of foods that are not the most nutrient dense (e.g.,
whole milk rather than fat-free milk) or may be additions
to foods (e.g., salad dressing, sugar, butter). A person's
energy allowance is the calorie intake at which weight maintenance
Energy Density—The calories contained in 100 grams of a
particular food defines that food's energy density.
Estimated Average Requirements—EAR is the average daily
nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of
half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and
gender group. (IOM, 2003)
FightBAC!—A national public education campaign to promote
food safety to consumers and educate them on how to handle
and prepare food safely. In this campaign, pathogens are
represented by a cartoon-like bacteria character named "BAC."
Foodborne Disease—Caused by consuming
contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing
microbes, or pathogens, can contaminate
foods, so there are many different foodborne infections.
In addition, poisonous chemicals, or other harmful substances,
can cause foodborne
diseases if they are present in food. The most commonly recognized
foodborne infections are those caused by the bacteria Campylobacter,
Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7, and by a group of viruses called calicivirus,
also known as the Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses.
Food Pattern Modeling—The
process of developing and adjusting daily intake amounts
from each food group and subgroup to
meet specific criteria. The criteria may be meeting nutrient
intake goals, limitations by food component (such as limiting
saturated fats), or limiting or eliminating certain types
of foods (such as no meats or no legumes). (Foote JA et al.
Dietary variety increases the probability of nutrient adequacy
among adults. Journal of Nutrition 134, 2004)
nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological
effects in humans.
Glycemic Index—A classification
proposed to quantify the relative blood glucose response
foods. Operationally, it is the area under the curve for
the increase in blood glucose after the ingestion of a set
amount of carbohydrate in a food (e.g., 50 grams) during
the 2-hour postprandial period relative to the same amount
of carbohydrate from a reference food (white bread or glucose)
tested in the same individual under the same conditions using
the initial blood glucose concentration as a baseline.
Glycemic Load—An indicator
of glucose response or insulin demand that is induced by
total carbohydrate intake. It is
calculated by multiplying the weighted mean of the dietary
glycemic index by the percentage of total energy from carbohydrate.
effects that carbohydrate-containing foods have on blood
concentration during the digestion
substance that forms the backbone of fatty acids in fats.
High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)—A corn sweetener derived
from the wet milling of corn. Cornstarch is converted to
a syrup that is nearly all dextrose. Enzymes isomerize the
dextrose to produce a 42 percent fructose syrup called HFCS-42.
By passing HFCS-42 through an ion-exchange column that retains
fructose, corn refiners draw off 90 percent HFCS and blend
it with HFCS-42 to make a third syrup, HFCS-55. HFCS is found
in numerous foods and beverages on the grocery store shelves.
HFCS-90 is used in natural and "light" foods in which very
little is needed to provide sweetness. (ERS, USDA). Total
fiber is the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber.
reaction that adds hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fat,
thus saturating it and making it solid
at room temperature.
Leisure-Time Physical Activity—Physical
activity that is performed during exercise, recreation, or
time other than that associated with one's regular job duties,
occupation, or transportation. (CDC)
Lifestyle Physical Activity—Muscle-powered
movement performed as a part of day-to-day activities, such
(e.g., walking to work), household chores (e.g., yard work),
or childcare (e.g., playing actively with children).
infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium
monocytogenes, which has recently
been recognized as an important public health problem in
the United States. The disease affects primarily pregnant
women, their fetuses, newborns, and adults with weakened
immune systems. Listeria is killed by pasteurization and
cooking; however, in certain ready-to-eat foods, such as
hot dogs and deli meats, contamination may occur after cooking/manufacture
but before packaging. Listeria monocytogenes can survive
at refrigerated temperatures.
Macronutrient—The three macronutrient groups are carbohydrates,
protein, and fat.
Metabolic Equivalent (MET)—A
way of measuring physical activity intensity. This unit is
used to estimate the amount of oxygen
used by the body during physical activity. (Ainsworth, 1993).
1 MET = the energy (oxygen) used by the body as you sit quietly,
perhaps while talking on the phone or reading a book. The
harder your body works during the activity, the higher the
Metabolic Syndrome—A collection
of metabolic risk factors in one individual. The root causes
of metabolic syndrome
are overweight/obesity, physical activity, and genetic factors.
Various risk factors have been included in metabolic syndrome.
Factors generally accepted as being characteristic of this
syndrome include abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia,
raised blood pressure, insulin resistance with or without
glucose intolerance, prothrombotic state, and proinflammatory
Micronutrient—An essential nutrient, as a trace mineral
or vitamin, that is required by an organism in minute amounts.
Moderate Physical Activity—Any
activity that burns 3.5 to 7 kcal/min or the equivalent of
3 to 6 metabolic equivalents
(METs) (CDC) and results in achieving 60 to73 percent of
peak heart rate (ASCM). An estimate of a person's peak heart
rate can be obtained by subtracting the person's age from
220. Examples of moderate physical activity include walking
briskly, mowing the lawn, dancing, swimming, or bicycling
on level terrain. A person should feel some exertion but
should be able to carry on a conversation comfortably during
the activity. (CDC)
Nutrient Adequacy—A goal
based on the RDA or AI set by the IOM in recent Dietary Reference
Intake reports. Goals include
targets for vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients and acceptable
intake ranges for macronutrients for various age/gender groups.
Adequacy of intake relates to meeting the individual's requirement
for that nutrient. (Modified from the Dietary Reference Intakes—Applications
in Dietary Assessment, Institute of Medicine of the National
Academies, p. 254, 2000)
dense foods are those that provide substantial amounts of
vitamins and minerals and relatively
fewer calories. Foods that are low in nutrient density are
foods that supply calories but relatively small amounts of
micronutrients (sometimes not at all). (Modified from the
International Food Information Council (IFIC) Glossary of
Food-Related Terms at www.ific.org/glossary/glossarynz.cfm.)
that can cause or is capable of causing disease.
found in edible fruits and vegetables that may be ingested
by humans daily in gram quantities and
that exhibit a potential for modulating the human metabolism
in a manner favorable for reducing the risk of cancer. (Modified
from the IFIC Glossary of Food-Related Terms at www.ific.org/glossary/glossarynz.cfm.)
Portion Size—The amount
of a food served in one eating occasion.
Probability of Adequacy—The
probability that a given nutrient intake is adequate for
an individual can be calculated if
the requirement distribution is known. If this distribution
is approximately normal, it is defined by the Estimated Average
Requirement (EAR) and its standard deviation.
condition that predisposes to venous or arterial thrombosis
(formation or presence of a clot within
a blood vessel).
Recommended Dietary Allowance
(RDA)—The dietary intake level
that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly
all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular
life stage and gender group. (IOM, 2003)
training, including weight training, weight machine use,
and resistance band workouts.
Resistance training will increase your strength, muscular
endurance, and muscle size; running and jogging will not
caused by bacteria called Salmonella. Most persons infected
with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever,
and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. The
illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most people recover
without treatment. Salmonellosis is prevented by cooking
poultry, ground beef, and eggs thoroughly before eating and
not eating or drinking foods containing raw eggs or raw unpasteurized
scientific literature, sedentary is often defined in terms
of little or no physical activity
during leisure time. A sedentary lifestyle is a lifestyle
characterized by little or no physical activity. (CDC)
difference between the palatability change score for the
food that is eaten versus the score
for the food that is uneaten.
Serving Size—A standardized
amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce, used in providing
dietary guidance or in
making comparisons among similar foods.
composed of a single sugar molecule (monosaccharide) or two
joined sugar molecules (a disaccharide),
such as glucose, fructose, lactose, and sucrose. Simple carbohydrates
include white and brown sugar, fruit sugar, corn syrup, molasses,
honey, and candy.
activity performed in a planned manner for enhancing health
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
(UL)—The highest average daily
nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health
affects for nearly all individuals in a particular life stage
and gender group. As intake increases above the UL, the potential
risk of adverse health affects increases. (IOM, 2003)
Vigorous Physical Activity—Any
activity that burns more than 7 kcal/ min or the equivalent
of 6 or more metabolic
equivalents (METs) (CDC) and results in achieving 74 to 88
percent of peak heart rate (ASCM). An estimate of a person's
peak heart rate can be obtained by subtracting the person's
age from 220. Examples of vigorous physical activity include
jogging, mowing the lawn with a nonmotorized push mower,
chopping wood, participating in high-impact aerobic dancing,
swimming continuous laps, or bicycling uphill. Vigorous-intensity
physical activity may be intense enough to represent a substantial
challenge to an individual and results in a significant increase
in heart and breathing rate. (CDC)
activity one performs that works bones and muscles against
gravity, including walking, running,
hiking, dancing, gymnastics, and soccer.
made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel,
which consists of the bran, germ,
and endosperm. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or
flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions
of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original grain in order
to be called whole grain. (ACCC, 2004)
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