Back to Part D. Science Base, Section 1. Aiming to Meet Nutrient Intake Recommendations

 

PART D: SCIENCE BASE

 

TABLE D1-1. Nutritional Goals for USDA Daily Food Intake Patterns
Page 1, Goals for Vitamins1

This table shows the nutritional goals for each proposed food intake pattern. The patterns are listed in the leftmost column, identified by calorie level. The target age/gender group(s) for each pattern are shown and the goals for each nutrient for that group are then listed. The source of the goal for each nutrient is shown at the top of the column. See the Notes page for additional information.

 
Nutrient
Source of Goal
VITAMIN A
RDA3
(g RAE)
VITAMIN E
RDA3
(mg AT)
VITAMIN C
RDA3
(mg)
THIAMIN
RDA3
(mg)
RIBOFLAVIN
RDA3
(mg)
NIACIN
RDA3
(mg)
VITAMIN B6
RDA3
(mg)
FOLATE
RDA3
(g)
VITAMIN B12
RDA3
(g)
Food Pattern
(calories)
Target age/gender group(s) for pattern2  
1000 child 1-3 300 6 15 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9
1200 female 4-8 400 7 25 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2
1400 male 4-8 400 7 25 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2
1600 female 9-13
female 51-70, 70+
600
700
11
15
45
75
0.9
1.1
0.9
1.1
12
14
1.0
1.5
300
400
1.8
2.4
1800 male 9-13
female 14-18
female 31-50
600
700
700
11
15
15
45
65
75
0.9
1.0
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.1
12
14
14
1.0
1.2
1.3
300
400
400
1.8
2.4
2.4
2000 male 51-70, 70+
female 19-30
900
 
700
15
 
15
90
 
75
1.2
 
1.1
1.3
 
1.1
16
 
14
1.7
 
1.3
400
 
400
2.4
 
2.4
2200 male 14-18
male 31-50
900
900
15
15
75
90
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
16
16
1.3
1.3
400
400
2.4
2.4
2400 male 19-30 900 15 90 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4
26007 male 19-30 900 15 90 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4
28007 male 14-18 900 15 75 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4
30007 male 19-30 900 15 90 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4
32007 male 14-18 900 15 75 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4

 

TABLE D1-1 (cont’d.): Nutritional Goals for USDA Daily Food Intake Patterns
Page 2, Goals for Minerals1

This table shows the nutritional goals for each proposed food intake pattern. The patterns are listed in the leftmost column, identified by calorie level. The target age/gender group(s) for each pattern are shown and the goals for each nutrient for that group are then listed. The source of the goal for each nutrient is shown at the top of the column. See the Notes page for additional information.

 
Nutrient
Source of Goal
CALCIUM
AI3
(mg)
PHOSPHORUS
RDA3
(mg)
MAGNESIUM
RDA3
(mg)
IRON
RDA3
(mg)
ZINC
RDA3
(mg)
COPPER
RDA3
(g)
SODIUM
UL (2004)3,4
(mg)
POTASSIUM
AI (2004)3,4
(mg)
Food Pattern
(calories)
Target age/gender group(s) for pattern2  
1000 child 1-3 500 460 80 7 3 340 <1500 3000
1200 female 4-8 800 500 130 10 5 440 <1900 3800
1400 male 4-8 800 500 130 10 5 440 <1900 3800
1600 female 9-13
female 51-70, 70+
1300
1200
1250
700
240
320
8
8
8
8
700
900
<2200
<2300
4500
4700
1800 male 9-13
female 14-18
female 31-50
1300
1300
1000
1250
1250
700
240
360
320
8
15
18
8
9
8
700
890
900
<2200
<2300
<2300
4500
4700
4700
2000 male 51-70, 70+
female 19-30
1200
 
1000
700
 
700
420
 
310
8
 
18
11
 
8
900
 
900
<2300
 
<2300
4700
 
4700
2200 male 14-18
male 31-50
1300
1000
1250
700
410
420
11
8
11
11
890
900
<2300
<2300
4700
4700
2400 male 19-30 1000 700 400 8 11 900 <2300 4700
26007 male 19-30 1000 700 400 8 11 900 <2300 4700
28007 male 14-18 1300 1250 410 11 11 890 <2300 4700
30007 male 19-30 1000 700 400 8 11 900 <2300 4700
32007 male 14-18 1300 1250 410 11 11 890 <2300 4700

 

TABLE D1-1 (cont’d.): Nutritional Goals for USDA Daily Food Intake Patterns
Page 3, Goals for Macronutrients1

This table shows the nutritional goals for each proposed food intake pattern. The patterns are listed in the leftmost column, identified by calorie level. The target age/gender group(s) for each pattern are shown and the goals for each nutrient for that group are then listed. The source of the goal for each nutrient is shown at the top of the column. See the Notes page for additional information.

 
Nutrient
Source of Goal
PROTEIN CARBOHYDRATE ADDED SUGARS TOTAL FIBER TOTAL FAT SATURATED FAT CHOLESTEROL LINOLEIC ACID α-LINOLENIC ACID
RDA3
(g)
AMDR3
(%)
RDA3
(g)
AMDR3
(%)
See Note 5
(%)
See Note 6
(g)
AMDR3
(%)
DG3
(%)
DV3
(mg)
AI3
(g)
AMDR3
(%)
AI3
(g)
AMDR3
(%)
Food Pattern
(calories)
Target age/gender group(s) for pattern2  
1000 child 1-3 13 5-20 130 45-65 <25% 14 30-40 <10% <300 7 5-10 0.7 0.6-1.2
1200 female 4-8 19 10-30 130 45-65 <25% 17 25-35 <10% <300 10 5-10 0.9 0.6-1.2
1400 male 4-8 19 10-30 130 45-65 <25% 20 25-35 <10% <300 10 5-10 0.9 0.6-1.2
1600 female 9-13
female 51-70, 70+
34

46
10-30
 
10-35
130
 
130
45-65
 
45-65
<25%
 
<25%
22
 
22
25-35
 
20-35
<10%
 
<10%
<300
 
<300
10
 
11
5-10
 
5-10
1.0
 
1.1
0.6-1.2
 
0.6-1.2
1800 male 9-13
female 14-18
female 31-50
34
46
 
46
10-30
10-30
 
10-35
130
130
 
130
45-65
45-65
 
45-65
<25%
<25%
 
<25%
25
25
 
25
25-35
25-35
 
20-35
<10%
<10%
 
<10%
<300
<300
 
<300
12
11
 
12
5-10
5-10
 
5-10
1.2
1.1
 
1.1
0.6-1.2
0.6-1.2
 
0.6-1.2
2000 male 51-70, 70+
female 19-30
56
 
46
10-35
 
10-35
130
 
130
45-65
 
45-65
<25%
 
<25%
28
 
28
20-35
 
20-35
<10%
 
<10%
<300
 
<300
14
 
12
5-10
 
5-10
1.6
 
1.1
0.6-1.2
 
0.6-1.2
2200 male 14-18
male 31-50
52
56
10-30
10-35
130
130
45-65
45-65
<25%
<25%
31
31
25-35
20-35
<10%
<10%
<300
<300
16
17
5-10
5-10
1.6
1.6
0.6-1.2
0.6-1.2
2400 male 19-30 56 10-35 130 45-65 <25% 34 20-35 <10% <300 17 5-10 1.6 0.6-1.2
26007 male 19-30 56 10-35 130 45-65 <25% 36 20-35 <10% <300 17 5-10 1.6 0.6-1.2
28007 male 14-18 52 10-30 130 45-65 <25% 39 25-35 <10% <300 16 5-10 1.6 0.6-1.2
30007 male 19-30 56 10-35 130 45-65 <25% 42 20-35 <10% <300 17 5-10 1.6 0.6-1.2
32007 male 14-18 52 10-30 130 45-65 <25% 45 25-35 <10% <300 16 5-10 1.6 0.6-1.2
 

Notes for Table D1-1:

1 Nutritional goals are from Institute of Medicine (IOM) Dietary Reference Intakes reports, 1997-2004 (RDA, AI, AMDR, UL); from Food and Drug Administration Daily Values for Nutrition Facts Labels (DV); and from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2000 (DG).

2 Target groups are based on estimated energy requirements of sedentary individuals of reference height and weight from IOM Dietary Reference Intakes macronutrients report, 2002.

3 Nutritional goals based on Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA); Adequate Intakes (AI); Daily Values (DV); Upper Limits (UL); Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR); or Dietary Guidelines (DG) recommendations. AMDR are shown as a percentage of total calories.

4 Standards for sodium and potassium have been updated since the original release of this table, and now are based on the Dietary Reference Intakes report for fluids and electrolytes, issued in February 2004. The standard used for sodium is a moderation goal, to be no more than the UL, and for potassium an adequacy goal, to be at least the AI.

5 Added sugars: The reference amount is based on the suggestion from the Dietary Reference Intakes macronutrients report. In determining Food Guide Pyramid daily food intake patterns, amounts of added sugars in each pattern are calculated based on the calories that remain available, up to the energy goal, after food group and fat calories are considered.

6 Estimated total fiber recommendation is based on 14 grams of total fiber per 1000 calories, the basis for the total fiber Adequate Intakes recommendation in the DRI macronutrients report. Additional explanation for this choice is found in the text of the Federal Register notice.

7 Food patterns at the 2600, 2800, 3000, and 3200 calorie levels are not target patterns for any age/gender group, but they are suggested patterns for more active men. Sample comparisons with the nutritional goals for males ages 14 to 18 and 19 to 30 are listed here.

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Table D1-2. Probabilities of Adequacy for Selected Nutrients on the First 24-hour Recall among Adult CSFII 1994-96 Participants.Nutrients considered “shortfall” nutrients in bold.

 
  Probability of adequacy (as a percentage)
Nutrient Men Women
Vitamin A 47.0% 48.1%
Vitamin C 49.3 52.3
Vitamin E 14.1 6.8
Thiamin 83.9 72.2
Riboflavin 85.8 80.9
Niacin 90.5 80.4
Folate1 33.9 20.9
Vitamin B-6 78.3 60.7
Vitamin B-12 80.5 64.2
Phosphorus 94.3 85.1
Magnesium 36.1 34.3
Iron 95.5 79.4
Copper 87.4 73.3
Zinc 65.7 62.0
Calcium 58.6 45.7
 

1 The probability of folate adequacy is underestimated because the folate intake values are expressed in milligrams of folate rather than dietary folate equivalents (DFEs), the unit used in Dietary Reference Intakes. DFEs account for the higher percent absorption of folate from foods fortified with folic acid, whereas milligrams of folate do not. Moreover, the food intake data from 1994-1996 do not reflect the current fortification of enriched grains with folic acid, required since 1998.

Source: Foote, et.al., 2004

Note: This table identifies the probability of adequacy for a nutrient, while table D1-4 identifies the probability of inadequacy for a nutrient.

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Table D1-3. Mean Dietary Intakes of Potassium and Fiber in Comparison with the Adequate Intake (AI).

 
  AI Mean Intake1,2
Potassium Males  
  <6 yrs. 3000 mg (1-3 yrs.) 2073 mg
  6-11 yrs. 3800 mg (4-8 yrs.) 2255 mg
  12-19 yrs. 4500 mg (9-13yrs.)
4700 mg (14-18yrs.)
2781 mg
  20-39 yrs. 4700 mg 3114 mg
  40-59 yrs. 4700 mg 3332 mg
  60 yrs. and over 4700 mg 3059 mg
  Females  
  <6 yrs. 3000 mg (1-3 yrs.) 1861 mg
  6-11 yrs. 3800 mg (4-8y) 2122 mg
  12-19 yrs. 4500 mg (9-13 yrs.)
4700 mg (14-18 yrs.)
2162 mg
  20-39 yrs. 4700 mg 2348 mg
  40-59 yrs. 4700 mg 2523 mg
  60 yrs. and over 4700 mg 2367 mg
Fiber Males  
  1-8 yrs. 19 g (1-3 yrs.) 25 g (4-8 yrs.) 9.1 g (M/F < 6 yrs.)
  9-18 yrs. 31 g (9-13 yrs.) 38 g (14-18 yrs.) 13.6 g (6-11 yrs.)
  19-50 yrs. 38 g 17.4 g (12-19 yrs.)
  51 yrs. and over 30 g 18.3 g (20-29 yrs.)
19.4 g (30-39 yrs.)
18.3 g (40-49 yrs.)
18.5 g (50-59, 60-69 yrs.)
17.7 g (70 and over)
  Females  
  1-8 yrs. 19 g (1-3 yrs.) 25 g (4-8 yrs.) 9.1 g (M/F <6 yrs.)
  9-18 yrs. 31 g (9-13 yrs.) 38 g (14-18 yrs.) 12.2 g (6-11 yrs.)
  19-50 yrs. 25 g 13.0 g (12-19 yrs.)
  51 yrs. and over 21 g 13.2 g (20-29 yrs.)
13.6 g (30-39 yrs.)
14.0 g (40-49 yrs.)
14.5 g (50-59 yrs.)
14.2 g (60-69, 70 and over)
 

Sources:

1 For potassium: Ervin et al, 2004.

2 For fiber: Agricultural Research Service, Results from USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) Table Set 10.

3 Agricultural Research Service, analysis of CSFII 1994-1996, 1998 data

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Table D1-4. Percentage of School-aged Children Whose Usual Daily Nutrient Intake was Below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for all Children and by Age and Gender, 1994-1996. (Nutrients considered “shortfall” nutrients in bold)

 
Nutrient All M 6-8 F 6-8 M 9-13 F 9-13 M 14-18 F 14-18
Vitamin A 10.1 0 0 3 6 15 24
Vitamin C 10.5 1 0 2 9 18 22
Vitamin E 78.9 48 68 70 85 84 99
Thiamin 1.9 0 0 9 0 2 10
Riboflavin 2.1 0 0 0 0 3 5
Niacin 1.9 0 0 0 0 0 5
Vitamin B-6 1.3 0 0 0 2 3 15
Folate1 50.6 13 14 36 59 58 90
Vitamin B-12 1.3 0 0 0 1 0 8
Phosphorus 19.9 0 0 15 37 7 48
Magnesium 36.5 1 0 16 33 62 89
Iron 2.9 1 1 0 0 1 13
Zinc 8.2 0 0 1 11 3 24
 

1 The percentage of children with folate intakes below the EAR is overestimated because the probability of folate adequacy is underestimated because the folate intake values are expressed in milligrams of folate rather than dietary folate equivalents (DFEs), the unit used in Dietary Reference Intakes. DFEs account for the higher percent absorption of folate from foods fortified with folic acid, whereas milligrams of folate do not. Moreover, the food intake data from 1994- 1996 do not reflect the current fortification of enriched grains with folic acid, required since 1998.

Sources: Suitor and Gleason, 2002

Note: This table identifies the probability of inadequacy for a nutrient, while table D1-2 identifies the probability of adequacy for a nutrient.

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Table D1-5. Food Sources of Vitamin A.

Table D1-5a. Food sources of vitamin A ranked by mcg RAE of vitamin A per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. (All are ≥20% of RDA for adult men, which is 900 mcg RAE.)

 
Food, Standard Amount Vitamin A
(mcg RAE)1
Calories1
Organ meats (liver, giblets),
various, cooked, 3 ounces
1490-9126 134-276
Carrot juice, 3/4 cup 1692 71
Sweet potato with peel, baked, 1
medium
1096 103
Pumpkin, canned, 1/2 cup 953 42
Carrots, cooked from fresh, 1/2 cup 671 27
Spinach, cooked from frozen, 1/2
cup
573 30
Collards, cooked from frozen, 1/2
cup
489 31
Kale, cooked from frozen, 1/2 cup 478 20
Mixed vegetables, canned, 1/2 cup 474 40
Turnip greens, cooked from frozen,
1/2 cup
441 24
Carrot, raw, 1 small 301 20
Instant cooked cereals, fortified,
prepared, 1 packet
280-285 75-97
Beet greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 276 19
Winter squash, cooked, 1/2 cup 268 38
Dandelion greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 260 18
Various read-to-eat cereals, ~1
ounce
123 to 230 100-117
Mustard greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 221 11
Pickled herring, 3 ounces 219 222
Green leaf lettuce, 1 cup 207 8
Red sweet pepper, cooked, 1/2 cup 187 19
Chinese cabbage, cooked, 1/2 cup 180 10
 

Table D1-5b. Food Sources of vitamin A as consumed by Americans2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of Total3
Carrots 26.9
Milk 9.0
Organ Meats 7.0
Ready-to-eat cereal 6.2
Cheese 5.0
Margarine 4.7
Tomatoes 4.2
Eggs 3.6
Spinach/greens 3.5
Sweet potatoes 3.2
Ice cream/sherbert/frozen
yogurt
2.0
 

1 Source: Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Food groups (n=9) contributing at least 1% in descending order: cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, cantaloupe, butter, tomato/vegetable juices, hot breakfast cereal, broccoli, meal replacements/protein supplements, peppers, and pies/crisps/cobblers.

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Table D1-6. Food Sources of Vitamin C.

Table D1-6a. Food sources of vitamin C ranked by milligrams of vitamin C per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. (All are ≥20% of RDA for adult men, which is 90 mg.)

 
Food, Standard Amount Vitamin C
(mg)1
Calories1
Guava, raw, 1/2 cup 151 44
Red pepper, sweet, raw, 1/2
cup
142 20
Red pepper, sweet, cooked, 1/2
cup
116 19
Orange juice, 3/4 cup 61 to 93 74 to 84
Grapefruit juice, 3/4 cup 50 to 70 71 to 86
Kiwi fruit, 1 medium 70 46
Orange, raw, 1 medium 70 62
Green pepper, sweet, raw, 1/2
cup
60 15
Broccoli, cooked, 1/2 cup 51 26
Green pepper, sweet, cooked,
1/2 cup
51 19
Vegetable juice cocktail, 3/4
cup
50 23
Strawberries, raw, 1/2 cup 49 27
Brussels sprouts, cooked, 1/2
cup
48 33
Cantaloupe, 1/4 medium 47 51
Papaya, raw, 1/4 medium 47 30
Kohlrabi, cooked, 1/2 cup 45 24
Broccoli, raw, 1/2 cup 39 15
Edible pod peas, cooked, 1/2
cup
38 42
Sweet potato, canned, 1/2 cup 34 116
Tomato juice, 3/4 cup 33 31
Cauliflower, cooked, 1/2 cup 28 17
Pineapple, raw, 1/2 cup 28 37
Kale, cooked, 1/2 cup 27 18
Mango, 1/2 cup 23 54
 

Table D1-6b. Food Sources of vitamin C as consumed by Americans.2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of total3
Orange/grapefruit juice 23.8
Fruit drinks 10.0
Tomatoes 9.9
Peppers 6.7
Potatoes (white) 5.8
Broccoli 5.7
Oranges/tangerines 4.1
Other juice (not citrus) 2.5
Cantaloupe 2.4
Milk <2.0
Cabbage <2.0
Ready-to-eat cereal <2.0

1 Source: Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Food groups (n=12) contributing at least 1% in descending order: milk, bananas, cabbage, strawberries, spinach/ greens, potato chips/corn chips/popcorn, grapefruit, other melon (not cantaloupe) ready-to-eat cereal, lettuce, and peas.

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Table D1-7. Food Sources of Magnesium.

Table D1-7a. Food sources of magnesium ranked by milligrams of magnesium per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. (All are ≥10% of RDA for adult men, which is 420 mg.)

 
Food, Standard Amount Magnesium
(mg)1
Calories1
Pumpkin/squash seed kernels,
roasted, 1 ounce
151 148
Bran RTE cereal (100%), 1/2
cup
114 78
Brazil nuts, 1 ounce 107 186
Halibut, cooked, 3 ounces 91 119
Quinoa, 1/4 cup 89 159
Spinach, canned, 1/2
cup
81 25
Almonds, 1 ounce 78 164
Spinach, cooked from fresh, 1/2
cup
78 20
Buckwheat flour, 1/4 cup 75 101
Cashews, dry roasted, 1 ounce 74 163
Soybeans, mature, cooked, 1/2
cup
74 149
Pine nuts, dried, 1 ounce 71 191
Mixed nuts with peanuts, 1
ounce
67 175
White beans, canned, 1/2 cup 67 154
Pollock, walleye, cooked, 3
ounces
62 96
Black beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 60 114
Tofu, firm, nigari, 1/2 cup 58 97
Bulgur, dry, 1/4 cup 57 120
Oat bran, raw, 1/4 cup 55 58
Navy beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 54 129
Soybeans, green, cooked, 1/2
cup
54 127
Tuna, yellowfin, cooked, 3
ounces
54 118
Artichokes, cooked, 1/2 cup 50 42
Peanuts, dry roasted, 1 ounce 50 166
Beet greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 49 19
Lima beans, baby, cooked
from frozen, 1/2 cup
47 95
Okra, cooked from frozen, 1/2
cup
47 26
Soymilk, 1 cup 47 120
Cowpeas, cooked, 1/2 cup 46 100
Hazelnuts, 1 ounce 46 178
Oat bran muffin, 1 ounce 45 77
Great northern beans, cooked,
1/2 cup
44 105
Oat bran, cooked, 1/2 cup 44 44
Buckwheat groats, roasted,
cooked, 1/2 cup
43 78
Brown rice, cooked, 1/2 cup 42 108
Haddock, cooked, 3 ounces 42 95
 

Table D1-7b. Food sources of magnesium as consumed by Americans.2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of Total3
Milk 8.3
Yeast bread 7.7
Coffee 6.5
Ready-to-eat cereal 4.9
Potatoes (white) 4.7
Beef 4.3
Poultry 3.4
Dried beans/lentils 3.4
Tomatoes 3.1
Alcoholic beverages 2.9
Potato chips/corn
chips/popcorn
2.8
Cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts 2.6
Pasta 2.6
Orange/grapefruit juice 2.4
Nuts/seeds 2.3
Cheese 2.2
Fish/shellfish (excluding
canned tuna)
<2.0

1 Source: Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Food groups (n=12) contributing at least 1% in descending order: bananas, rice/cooked grains, fish/shellfish (excluding canned tuna), tea, ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt, hot breakfast cereal, soft drinks/soda, tortillas/tacos, meal replacements/protein supplements, candy, flour/baking ingredients, and spinach/greens.

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Table D1-8. Food Sources of Vitamin E.

Table D1-8a. Food sources of vitamin E ranked by milligrams of vitamin E per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount (All provide ≥10% of RDA for vitamin E for adults, which is 15 mg α–tocopherol (AT).)

 
Food, Standard Amount Mg AT1 Calories1
Fortified ready-to-eat cereals, ~1 ounce 6.9-17.4 88-132
Almonds, 1 oz 7.3 164
Sunflower seeds, dry roasted, 1 oz 6.0 165
Sunflower oil, high linoleic, 1 Tbsp 5.6 120
Cottonseed oil, 1 Tbsp 4.8 120
Safflower oil, high oleic, 1 Tbsp 4.6 120
Hazelnuts (filberts), 1 oz 4.3 178
Avocado, raw, 1 each 4.2 322
Mixed nuts, dry roasted, 1 oz 3.1 168
Tomato paste, 1/4 cup 2.8 54
Pine nuts, 1 oz 2.6 191
Peanut Butter, 2 Tbsp 2.5 192
Tomato puree, 1/2 cup 2.5 48
Tomato sauce, 1/2 cup 2.5 39
Canola oil, 1 Tbsp 2.4 124
Wheat germ, toasted, plain, 2 Tbsp 2.3 54
Peanuts, 1 oz 2.2 166
Turnip greens, frozen, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.2 24
Carrot juice, canned, 3/4 cup 2.1 71
Peanut oil, 1 Tbsp 2.1 119
Corn oil, 1 Tbsp 1.9 120
Olive oil, 1 Tbsp 1.9 119
Spinach, cooked, 1/2 cup 1.9 21
Dandelion greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 1.8 18
Sardine, Atlantic, in oil, drained, 3 oz 1.7 177
Blue crab, cooked/canned, 3 oz 1.6 84
Brazil nuts, 1 oz 1.6 186
Herring, Atlantic, pickled, 3 oz 1.5 222
 

Table D1-8b. Food sources of vitamin E as consumed by Americans2 (Percent total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food % of total3
Salad dressing/mayonnaise 12.0
Oils 9.5
Ready-to-eat cereal 7.9
Margarine 7.6
Cakes/cookies/quick
breads/doughnuts
7.3
Tomatoes 7.0
Nuts/seeds 4.2
Yeast bread 3.7
Chips* and popcorn 3.4
Other fats** 3.4
Eggs 2.3
Meal replacement/
protein supplements
<2.0
Fish/shellfish*** <2.0
 

1 Source: Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Additional food groups (n=11) contributing at least 1% in descending order: pies/crisps/cobblers, broccoli, milk, cheese, biscuits, poultry, beef, crackers/pretzels, and tortillas/tacos.

* Potato and corn chips

** Shortening/animal fat

*** Excl. canned tuna

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Table D1-9. Food Sources of Calcium.

Table D1-9a. Food sources of calcium ranked by milligrams of calcium per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. (All are ≥20% of AI for adults 19-50, which is 1000 mg.)

 
Food, Standard Amount Calcium
(mg)1
Calories1
Fortified ready-to-eat cereals
(various), 1 ounce
350-1000 74-120
Plain yogurt, nonfat (13g
protein/8oz), 8 ounces
452 127
Romano cheese, 1.5 ounces 452 165
Pasteurized process Swiss
cheese, 2 ounces
438 190
Tofu, raw, regular, prepared
with calcium sulfate, 1/2 cup
434 94
Plain yogurt, lowfat (12 g
protein/8 oz), 8 ounces
415 143
Fruit yogurt, lowfat (10 g
protein/8 oz), 8 ounces
345 232
Swiss cheese, 1.5 ounces 336 162
Ricotta cheese, part skim, 1/2 cup 335 170
Sardines, canned in oil, drained,
3 ounces
325 177
Pasteurized process American
cheese food, 2 ounces
323 188
Provolone cheese, 1.5 ounces 321 150
Mozzarella cheese, part-skim, 1.5 ounces 311 129
Cheddar cheese, 1.5 ounces 307 171
Skim milk, 1 cup 306 83
Muenster cheese, 1.5 ounces 305 156
1% lowfat milk, 1 cup 290 102
Lowfat chocolate milk (1%), 1
cup
288 158
2% reduced fat milk, 1 cup 285 122
Reduced fat chocolate milk
(2%), 1 cup
285 180
Buttermilk, low fat, 1 cup 284 98
Chocolate milk, 1 cup 280 208
Sesame seeds, roasted and
toasted, 1 ounce
280 160
Whole milk, 1 cup 276 146
Yogurt, plain, whole milk (8 g
protein/8 oz), 8 ounces
275 138
Ricotta cheese, whole milk, 1/2
cup
255 214
Blue cheese, 1.5 ounces 225 150
Mozzarella cheese, whole milk,
1.5 ounces
215 128
Feta cheese, 1.5 ounces 210 113
Tofu, firm, prepared with nigari,
1/2 cup
204 97
 

Table D1-9b. Food sources of calcium as consumed by Americans2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of total3
Milk 28.3
Cheese 19.6
Yeast bread 8.9
Ice cream/sherbert/frozen yogurt 4.0
Cakes/cookies/quick
breads/doughnuts
2.4
 

1 Source: Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Food groups (n=11) contributing at least 1% in descending order: yogurt, ready-to-eat cereal, soft drinks/soda, tortillas/tacos, eggs, dried beans/lentils, tomatoes, meal replacements/protein supplements, corn bread/corn muffins, hot breakfast cereal, and coffee.

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Table D1-10. Food Sources of Potassium.

Table D1-10a. Food sources of potassium ranked by milligrams of potassium per standard amount, also showing calories in the standard amount. (The AI for adults is 4700 mg. potassium)

 
Food, Standard Amount Potassium
(mg)1
Calories
Sweet potato, baked, 1 potato (146 g) 694 131
Tomato paste, 1/4 cup 664 54
Beet greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 655 19
Potato, baked, flesh, 1 potato (156 g) 610 145
White beans, canned, 1/2 cup 595 153
Yogurt, plain, nonfat, 8 oz container 579 127
Tomato puree, 1/2 cup 549 48
Clams, canned, 3 oz 534 126
Yogurt, plain, lowfat, 8 oz container 531 143
Prune juice, 3/4 cup 530 136
Carrot juice, 3/4 cup 517 71
Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp 498 47
Halibut, cooked, 3 oz 490 119
Soybeans, green, cooked, 1/2 cup 485 127
Tuna, yellowfin, cooked, 3 oz 484 118
Lima beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 478 108
Winter squash, cooked, 1/2 cup 448 57
Soybeans, mature, cooked, 1/2 cup 443 149
Rockfish, Pacific, cooked, 3 oz 442 103
Cod, Pacific, cooked, 3 oz 439 89
Bananas, 1 medium 422 105
Spinach, cooked, 1/2 cup 419 21
Tomato juice, 3/4 cup 417 31
Tomato sauce, 1/2 cup 405 39
Peaches, dried, uncooked, 1/4 cup 398 96
Prunes, stewed, 1/2 cup 398 133
Milk, nonfat, 1 cup 382 83
Pork chop, center loin, cooked, 3 oz 382 197
Apricots, dried, uncooked, 1/4 cup 378 78
Rainbow trout, cooked, 3 oz 375 144
Pork loin, center rib (roasts), lean,
roasted, 3 oz
371 190
Buttermilk, cultured, lowfat, 1 cup 370 98
Cantaloupe, 1/4 medium 368 47
1% milk, 1 cup 366 102
2% milk, 1 cup 366 122
Honeydew melon, 1/8 medium 365 58
Lentils, cooked, 1/2 cup 365 115
Plantains, cooked, 1/2 cup 358 90
Kidney beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 357 113
Orange juice, 3/4 cup 355 85
Split peas, cooked, 1/2 cup 355 116
Yogurt, plain, whole milk, 8 oz container 352 138
 

Table D1-10b. Food sources of potassium as consumed by Americans2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of total3
Milk 10.2%
Potatoes (white) 8.9%
Coffee 6.7%
Beef 6.2%
Tomatoes 6.2%
Orange/grapefruit juice 4.1%
Yeast bread 3.6%
Poultry 3.3%
Dried beans/lentils 2.8%
Bananas 2.7%
Potato/corn chips,
popcorn
2.3%
Tea 2.0%
Fish/shellfish(excl.
canned tuna)
<2.0%
 

1 Source: ARS Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Additional food groups (n=11) contributing at least 1% in descending order: ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt, ready-to-eat cereal, fish/shellfish (excluding canned tuna). Cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, alcoholic beverages, cheese, pork (fresh/unprocessed), lettuce, ham, carrots, and onions.

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Table D1-11. Food Sources of Dietary Fiber.

Table D1-11a. Food sources of dietary fiber ranked by grams of dietary fiber per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount (All are ≥10% of AI for adult women, which is 25 grams.)

 
Food, Standard Amount Dietary Fiber
(g)1
Calories1
Bran ready-to-eat cereal (100%),
1/2 cup
9.6 78
Kidney beans, canned, 1/2 cup 8.2 109
Split peas, cooked, 1/2 cup 8.1 116
Lentils, cooked, 1/2 cup 7.8 115
Black beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 7.5 114
Pinto beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 7.0 120
Lima beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 6.6 108
Artichoke, globe, cooked, 1 each 6.5 60
White beans, canned, 1/2 cup 6.3 154
Chickpeas, cooked, 1/2 cup 6.2 135
Great northern beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 6.2 105
Navy beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 5.8 129
Cowpeas, cooked, 1/2 cup 5.6 100
Soybeans, mature, cooked, 1/2 cup 5.2 149
Bran ready-to-eat cereals, various,
~1 ounce
2.6-5.1 91-105
Crackers, rye wafers, plain, 2 wafers 5.0 74
Guava, 1 medium 4.9 46
Sweet potato, baked, with peel, 1
medium (146 g)
4.8 131
Asian pear, raw, 1 small 4.4 51
Green peas, cooked, 1/2 cup 4.4 67
Whole wheat English muffin, 1 each 4.4 134
Pear, raw, 1 small 4.3 81
Bulgur, cooked, 1/2 cup 4.1 76
Mixed vegetables, cooked, 1/2 cup 4.0 59
Raspberries, raw, 1/2 cup 4.0 32
Sweet potato, boiled, no peel, 1
medium (156g)
3.9 119
Blackberries, raw, 1/2 cup 3.8 31
Potato, baked, with skin, 1 medium 3.8 240
Soybeans, green, cooked, 1/2 cup 3.8 127
Stewed prunes, 1/2 cup 3.8 133
Figs, dried, 1/4 cup 3.7 93
Dates, 1/4 cup 3.6 126
Oat bran, raw, 1/4 cup 3.6 58
Pumpkin, canned, 1/2 cup 3.6 42
Spinach, frozen, cooked, 1/2 cup 3.5 30
Almonds, 1 ounce 3.3 164
Apple with skin, raw, 1 medium 3.3 72
Brussels sprouts, cooked, 1/2 cup 3.2 33
Whole wheat spaghetti, cooked, 1/2
cup
3.2 87
Banana, 1 medium 3.1 105
Orange, raw, 1 medium 3.1 62
Oat bran muffin, 1 small 3.0 178
Pearled barley, cooked, 1/2 cup 3.0 97
Sauerkraut, canned, solids and
liquids, 1/2 cup
3.0 23
Tomato paste, 1/4 cup 2.9 54
Winter squash, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.9 38
Broccoli, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.8 26
Shredded wheat ready-to-eat
cereals, various, ~1 ounce
2.6-2.8 78-95
Parsnips, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.8 55
Turnip greens, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.8 24
Collards, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.7 25
Okra, frozen, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.6 26
Peas, edible-podded, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.5 42
 

Table D1-11b. Food sources of dietary fiber as consumed by Americans2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of total3
Yeast Bread 14.0
Dried beans/lentils 9.2
Potatoes(white) 7.5
Ready-to-eat cereal 6.9
Tomatoes 4.9
Pasta 3.7
Potato/corn chips, popcorn 3.6
Cakes/cookies/quick
breads/doughnuts
3.2
Apples/applesauce 2.7
Bananas 2.7
Peas 2.2
Flour/baking ingredients 2.2
Carrots 2.1
Hot breakfast cereals <2.0
Corn <2.0
 

1 Source: ARS Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.

2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes.

3 Food groups (n=13) contributing at least 1% in descending order: tortillas/tacos, onions, lettuce, nuts/seeds, hot breakfast cereal, broccoli, green beans, corn, rice/cooked grains, crackers/pretzels, pies/crisps/cobblers, oranges/tangerines, spinach/greens.

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Table D1-12. Functions of "Shortfall" Nutrients.

 
Nutrient Function
Vitamin A Vitamin A plays a significant role in vision, gene expression, cellular differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, immune function, and maintenance of healthy bones, teeth, and hair.
Vitamin C As a dietary antioxidant, vitamin C counteracts the oxidative damage to biomolecules; additionally, vitamin C helps strengthen blood vessels and maintain healthy gums, and aids in the absorption of iron.
Vitamin E As a dietary antioxidant, vitamin E counteracts the oxidative damage to biomolecules; in addition, vitamin E helps in the formation of red blood cells and muscles.
Calcium Calcium is the key nutrient in the development and maintenance of bones; additionally calcium aids in blood clotting and muscle and nerve functioning.
Magnesium Magnesium plays a key role in the development and maintenance of bones, as well as activates enzymes necessary for energy release.
Potassium Potassium assists in muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in cells, transmitting nerve impulses, and releasing energy during metabolism. Diets rich in potassium lower blood pressure, blunt the adverse effects of salt on blood pressure, may reduce the risk of developing kidney stones, and may decrease bone loss.
Dietary Fiber Fiber helps maintain the health of the digestive tract and promotes proper bowel functioning.

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Table D1-13. Revised USDA Food Intake Patterns for Meeting Recommended Nutrient Intakes

This table shows the suggested amounts of food to consume from the basic food groups, subgroups, and oils to meet recommended nutrient intakes at 12 different calorie levels. Nutrient and energy contributions from each group are calculated based on nutrient dense forms of foods in each group (e.g., lean meats, fat-free milk). The table also shows the amount of discretionary calories that can be accommodated within each calorie level in addition to the suggested amounts of nutrient dense forms of foods in each group.

 
  Daily Amount of Food From Each Group In Pattern (Vegetable subgroup amounts are per week)
Calorie Level 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200
FOOD GROUP1 Food group amounts shown in cup (c) or ounce equivalents (oz eq) with number of servings (srv) in parentheses when it differs from the other units. See note for quantity equivalents for foods in each group.2 Oils are shown in grams (g).
FRUITS 1 c(2 srv) 1 c(2 srv) 1.5 c(3 srv) 1.5 c(3 srv) 1.5 c(3 srv) 2 c(4 srv) 2 c(4 srv) 2 c(4 srv) 2 c(4 srv) 2.5 c(5 srv) 2.5 c(5 srv) 2.5 c(5 srv)
   
VEGETABLES3 1 c(2 srv) 1.5 c(3 srv) 1.5 c(3 srv) 2 c(4 srv) 2.5 c(5 srv) 2.5 c(5 srv) 3 c(6 srv) 3 c(6 srv) 3.5 c(7 srv) 3.5 c(7 srv) 4 c(8 srv) 4 c(8 srv)
   Dark-green
   veg.
1 c/wk 1 1/2 c/wk 1 1/2 c/wk 2 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk
   Orange veg. 1/2 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 1/2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk
   Legumes 1/2 c/wk 1 c/wk 1 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 1/2 c/wk 3 1/2 c/wk 3 1/2 c/wk 3 1/2 c/wk
   Starchy veg. 1 1/2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 2 1/2 c/wk 3 c/wk 3 c/wk 6 c/wk 6 c/wk 7 c/wk 7 c/wk 9 c/wk 9 c/wk
   Other veg. 4 c/wk 4 1/2 c/wk 4 1/2 c/wk 5 1/2 c/wk 6 1/2 c/wk 6 1/2 c/wk 7 c/wk 7 c/wk 8 1/2 c/wk 8 1/2 c/wk 10 c/wk 10 c/wk
   
GRAINS4 3 oz eq 4 oz eq 5 oz eq 5 oz eq 6 oz eq 6 oz eq 7 oz eq 8 oz eq 9 oz eq 10 oz eq 10 oz eq 10 oz eq
   Whole grains 1.5 2 2.5 3 3 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5 5
   Other grains 1.5 2 2.5 2 3 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5 5
   
MEAT AND BEANS 2 oz eq 3 oz eq 4 oz eq 5 oz eq 5 oz eq 5 1/2 oz eq 6 oz eq 6 1/2 oz eq 6 1/2 oz eq 7 oz eq 7 oz eq 7 oz eq
   
MILK 2 c 2 c 2 c 3 c 3 c 3 c 3 c 3 c 3 c 3 c 3 c 3 c
   
Oils5 14 g 17 g 18 g 20 g 22 g 24 g 27 g 27 g 30 g 34 g 40 g 46 g
   
Discretionary
calories6
154 163 173 181 190 208 235 235 244 262 298 334

Notes for Table D1-13:

1. Food items included in each group and subgroup:

Fruits All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruits and fruit juices: for example, oranges and orange juice, apples and apple juice, bananas, grapes, melons, berries, raisins. In developing the food patterns, only fruits and juices with no added sugars or fats were used. See note 6 on discretionary calories if products with added sugars or fats are consumed.
Vegetables In developing the food patterns, only vegetables with no added fats or sugars were used. See note 6 on discretionary calories if products with added sugars or fats are consumed.
   Dark-green vegetables All fresh, frozen, and canned dark-green vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, broccoli; spinach; romaine; collard, turnip, and mustard greens.
   Orange vegetables All fresh, frozen, and canned orange and deep-yellow vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, carrots, sweet potatoes, winter squash, pumpkin.
   Legumes (dry beans and peas) All cooked dry beans and peas and soybean products: for example, pinto beans, kidney beans, lentils, chickpeas, tofu. (See comment under meat and beans group about counting legumes in the vegetable or the meat and beans group.)
   Starchy vegetables All fresh, frozen, and canned starchy vegetables: for example, white potatoes, corn, green peas.
   Other vegetables All fresh, frozen, and canned other vegetables, cooked or raw: for example, tomatoes, tomato juice, lettuce, green beans, onions.
Grains In developing the food patterns, only grains in low-fat and low sugars forms were used. See note 6 on discretionary calories if products that are higher in fat and/or added sugars are consumed.
   Whole grains All whole grain products and whole grains used as ingredients: for example, whole wheat and rye breads, whole grain cereals and crackers, oatmeal, brown rice.
   Other grains All refined grain products and refined grains used as ingredients: for example, white breads, enriched grain cereals and crackers, enriched pasta, white rice.
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts (Meat & beans) All meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, eggs, nuts, seeds. Most choices should be lean or low fat. See note 6 on discretionary calories if higher fat products are consumed.
Dry beans and peas and soybean products are considered part of this group as well as the vegetable group, but should be counted in one group only.
Milk, yogurt, and cheese (Milk) All milks, yogurts, frozen yogurts, dairy desserts, cheeses (except cream cheese), including lactose-free and lactose-reduced products. Most choices should be fat-free or low-fat. In developing the food patterns, only fat-free milk was used. See note 6 on discretionary calories if one consumes low-fat, reduced fat, or whole milk or milk products--or milk products that contain added sugars. Calcium-fortified soy beverages are an option for those who want a non-dairy calcium source.

2. Quantity equivalents for each food group:

Grains The following each count as 1 ounce equivalent (1serving) of grains: 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cooked cereal; 1 ounce dry pasta or rice; 1 slice bread; 1 small muffin (1 oz); 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes.
Fruits and vegetables The following each count as 1 cup (2 servings) of fruits or vegetables: 1 cup cut-up raw or cooked fruit or vegetable, 1 cup fruit or vegetable juice, 2 cups leafy salad greens.
Meat and beans The following each count as 1 ounce equivalent: 1 ounce lean meat, poultry, or fish; 1 egg; 1/4 cup cooked dry beans or tofu; 1 Tbsp peanut butter; 1/2 ounce nuts or seeds.
Milk The following each count as 1 cup (1 serving) of milk: 1 cup milk or yogurt, 1 1/2 ounces natural cheese such as cheddar cheese, or 2 ounces process cheese. Discretionary calories must be counted for all choices except nonfat milk.
 

3. Explanation of vegetable subgroup amounts:
Vegetable subgroup amounts are shown in this table as weekly amounts, because it would be difficult for consumers to select foods from each subgroup daily. A daily amount that is one-seventh of the weekly amount listed is used in calculations of nutrient and energy levels in each pattern.

4. Explanation of grain subgroup amounts:
The whole grain subgroup amounts shown in this table represent at least 3 one-ounce servings, and one-half of the total amount as whole grains for all calorie levels of 1600 and above. This is the minimum suggested amount of whole grains to consume as part of the food patterns. More whole grains up to all of the grains recommended may be selected, with offsetting decreases in the amounts of other (enriched) grains. In patterns designed for younger children (1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 calories), one-half of the total amount of grains is shown as whole grains.

5. Explanation of oils:
Oils (including trans-free soft margarine) shown in this table represent the amounts that are added to foods during processing, cooking, or at the table. Oils and soft margarines include vegetable oils and soft vegetable oil table spreads that are trans-free. The amounts of oils listed in this table are not considered to be part of discretionary calories because they are a major source of the vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including the essential fatty acids, in the food pattern. In contrast, solid fats are listed separately in the discretionary calorie table (Table D1-14) because, compared with oils, they are higher in saturated fatty acids and lower in vitamin E and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including essential fatty acids. The amounts of each type of fat in the food intake pattern were based on 60% oils and/or trans-free soft margarines and 40% solid fat. The amounts in typical American diets are about 42% oils or soft margarines and about 58% solid fats.

6. Discretionary calories are the remaining amount of calories in each food pattern after selecting the specified number of nutrient dense forms of foods in each food group. The number of discretionary calories assumes that food items in each food group are selected in nutrient dense forms (that is, forms that are fat-free or low-fat and that contain no added sugars). Solid fat and sugar calories always need to be counted as discretionary calories, as in the following examples:

The fat in low-fat, reduced fat, or whole milk or milk products or cheese and the sugar and fat in chocolate milk, ice cream, pudding, etc.
The fat in higher fat meats (e.g., ground beef with more than 5% fat by weight, poultry with skin, higher fat luncheon meats, sausages)
The sugars added to fruits and fruit juices with added sugars or fruits canned in syrup
The added fat and/or sugars in vegetables prepared with added fat or sugars
The added fats and/or sugars in grain products containing higher levels of fats and/or sugars (e.g., sweetened cereals, higher fat crackers, pies and other pastries, cakes, cookies)

Total discretionary calories should be limited to the amounts shown in the table at each calorie level. Additional information about discretionary calories, including an example of the division of these calories between solid fats and added sugars, is provided in Table D1-14.

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Table D1-14. Discretionary Calories in Revised USDA Food Intake Patterns.

Discretionary calories are the remaining amount of calories in each food pattern after nutrient dense forms of foods in each food group are selected. This table shows the number of discretionary calories remaining in each food intake pattern if nutrient dense foods are selected. Those trying to lose weight may choose not to use discretionary calories. For those wanting to maintain their weight, discretionary calories may be used to increase the amount of food selected from each food group; to consume foods that are not in the lowest fat form (such as 2% milk or medium fat meat) or that contain added sugars; to add oil, fat, or sugars to foods; or to consume alcohol. The table shows an example of how these calories may be divided between solid fats and added sugars.

 
  Discretionary calories that remain in food patterns at each calorie level
FOOD PATTERN
CALORIE LEVEL
1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000 3,200
Discretionary
calories1
154 163 172 181 190 208 235 235 244 262 298 334
Example of division of discretionary calories:
Solid fats are shown in grams (g); added sugars in grams (g) and teaspoons (tsp).
     Solid fats2 10 g 11 g 12 g 13 g 14 g 16 g 19 g 19 g 20 g 22 g 26 g 30 g
     Added sugars3 16 g
(4tsp)
20 g
(5tsp)
20 g
(5tsp)
24 g
(6tsp)
32 g
(8tsp)
40 g
(10tsp)
48 g
(12tsp)
56 g
(14tsp)
64 g
(16tsp)
72 g
(18tsp)
80 g
(20tsp)
112 g
(28tsp)
 

1. Discretionary calories: In developing the food patterns, food items in nutrient dense forms (that is, forms that are fat-free or low-fat and that contain no added sugars) were used. The number of discretionary calories assumes that food items in each food group are selected in nutrient dense forms. Solid fat and sugar calories always need to be counted as discretionary calories, as in the following examples:

The fat in low-fat, reduced fat, or whole milk or milk products or cheese and the sugar and fat in chocolate milk, ice cream, pudding, etc.
The fat in higher fat meats (e.g., ground beef with more than 5% fat by weight, poultry with skin, higher fat luncheon meats, sausages)
The sugars added to fruits and fruit juices with added sugars or fruits canned in syrup
The added fat and/or sugars in vegetables prepared with added fat or sugars
The added fats and/or sugars in grain products containing higher levels of fats and/or sugars (e.g., sweetened cereals, higher fat crackers, pies
and other pastries, cakes, cookies)
Total discretionary calories should be limited to the amounts shown in the table at each calorie level. The calories assigned to discretionary calories may be used to increase intake from the basic food groups; to select foods from these groups that are higher in fat or with added sugars; to add oils, solid fats or sugars to foods or beverages; or to consume alcohol. See note 2 on limits for solid fats.

2. Solid fats: Amounts of solid fats listed in the table represent about 7 to 8% of calories from saturated fat.
Foods in each food group are represented in their lowest fat forms, such as fat-free milk and skinless chicken. Solid fats shown in this table represent the amounts of fats that may be added in cooking or at the table, and fats consumed when higher fat items are selected from the food groups (e.g., whole milk instead of fat-free milk, chicken with skin, or cookies instead of bread), without exceeding the recommended limits on saturated fat intake. Solid fats include meat and poultry fats eaten either as part of the meat or poultry product or separately; milk fat such as that in whole milk, cheese, and butter; shortenings used in baked products; and hard margarines.

Solid fats and oils are separated because their fatty acid compositions differ. Solid fats are higher in saturated fatty acids, and commonly consumed oils and trans-free soft margarines are higher in vitamin E and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including essential fatty acids. Oils listed in Table D-1- 13, and are not considered to be part of discretionary calories because they are a major source of the essential fatty acids and vitamin E in the food patterns.

The gram weights for solid fats are the amounts of these products that can be included in the pattern, and are not identical to the amount of lipids in these items, since some products (margarines, butter) contain water or other ingredients in addition to lipids.

3. Added sugars:
Added sugars are the sugars and syrups added to foods and beverages in processing or preparation, not the naturally-occurring sugars in fruits or milk. The amounts of added suggested in the example are NOT specific recommendations for amounts of added sugars to consume, but rather represent the amounts that can be included in each food intake pattern without over-consuming calories. The suggested amounts of added sugars may be helpful as part of the food patterns to allow for some sweetened foods or beverages, without exceeding energy needs. This use of added sugars as a calorie balance requires two assumptions: (1) that selections are made from all food groups in accordance with the suggested amounts and (2) that additional fats are used in the amounts shown, which together with the fats in the core food groups represent about 30% of calories from fat.

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TABLE D1-15. Nutrient Profiles1 of USDA Food Intake Pattern Food Groups and Subgroups
P. 1, Vitamins

This table shows the nutrient composition of each food group and subgroup. The nutrients are listed for a standard amount from each group, and the values are weighted averages of the nutrients in all foods in each group, in their lowest fat and sugar form. Weights for these average values are based on the amounts of each food consumed by Americans according to national surveys. See the notes page for additional information.

 
Food Groups
and subgroups
Standard Amount2 VITAMIN A VITAMIN E VITAMIN C THIAMIN RIBOFLAVIN NIACIN VITAMIN B6 FOLATE VITAMIN B12
    g RAE3 mg AT3 mg mg mg mg mg g g
FRUITS 1/2 cup 19 0.2 30 0.07 0.04 0.4 0.1 28 0.0
     
Vegetables    
   Dark-green 1/2 cup 167 1.0 30 0.05 0.10 0.4 0.1 81 0.0
   Deep-yellow 1/2 cup 554 0.6 5 0.19 0.04 0.6 0.1 10 0.0
   Legumes 1/2 cup 0 0.6 0 0.11 0.05 0.3 0.1 111 0.0
   Starchy 1/2 cup 2 0.0 6 0.09 0.03 1.1 0.2 14 0.0
   Other 1/2 cup 12 0.4 10 0.04 0.04 0.5 0.1 17 0.0
     
GRAINS4    
   Whole grains 1 slice/1/2 cup 26 0.1 1 0.12 0.10 1.3 0.1 37 0.3
   Other grains 1 slice/1/2 cup 6 0.1 0 0.14 0.09 1.3 0.0 36 0.1
     
MEAT AND BEANS 1 ounce 18 0.2 0 0.06 0.06 1.8 0.1 5 0.6
     
MILK5 1 cup 69 0.0 0 0.11 0.45 0.2 0.1 12 1.3
     
Oils/soft Margarines 100 g 109 14.3 0 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0
     
Solid Fats 100 g 447 4.1 0 0.00 0.02 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.1
     
Added Sugars 4 grams/1 tsp. 0 0.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 

TABLE D1-15, (cont’d.). Nutrient Profiles1 of USDA Food Intake Pattern Food Groups and Subgroups
P. 2, Minerals

 
Food Groups
and subgroups
Standard Amount2 CALCIUM PHOSPHORUS MAGNESIUM IRON ZINC COPPER SODIUM POTASSIUM
    mg mg mg mg mg mg mg mg
FRUITS 1/2 cup 13 20 15 0.3 0.1 0.07 3 253
     
Vegetables    
   Dark-green 1/2 cup 50 39 25 1.0 0.3 0.07 30 229
   Deep-yellow 1/2 cup 23 25 9 0.3 0.2 0.03 41 214
   Legumes 1/2 cup 56 115 43 2.3 1.0 0.23 6 321
   Starchy 1/2 cup 8 43 19 0.4 0.3 0.12 5 286
   Other 1/2 cup 21 21 10 0.5 0.2 0.06 57 163
     
GRAINS4    
   Whole grains 1 slice/1/2 cup 29 82 27 1.6 0.8 0.07 99 78
   Other grains 1 slice/1/2 cup 31 34 7 1.2 0.2 0.06 154 29
     
MEAT AND BEANS 1 ounce 6 63 9 0.6 1.0 0.05 110 96
     
MILK5 1 cup 306 247 27 0.1 1.0 0.03 103 382
     
Oils/soft Margarines 100 g 3 2 0 0.0 0.0 0.00 132 4
     
Solid Fats 100 g 14 13 1 0.1 0.0 0.01 163 16
     
Added Sugars 4 grams/1 tsp. 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.00 0 0
 

TABLE D1-15, (cont’d.). Nutrient Profiles1 of USDA Food Intake Pattern Food Groups and Subgroups
P. 3, Macronutrients

 
Food Groups
and subgroups
Standard Amount2 CALORIES PROTEIN CARBO-
HYDRATE
DIETARY
FIBER
TOTAL
FAT
SATURATED
FAT
MONO.
FAT
POLY.
FAT
CHOLESTEROL LINOLEIC
ACID
ALPHA-LINOLENIC
ACID
    kcal g g g g g g g mg g g
FRUITS 1/2 cup 70 1 17 1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0 0.0 0.02
     
Vegetables    
   Dark-green 1/2 cup 20 2 4 2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0 0.0 0.06
   Deep-yellow 1/2 cup 32 1 7 2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0 0.1 0.00
   Legumes 1/2 cup 113 8 19 6 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.5 0 0.4 0.11
   Starchy 1/2 cup 73 2 17 2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0 0.1 0.01
   Other 1/2 cup 17 1 4 1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0 0.1 0.02
     
GRAINS4    
   Whole grains 1 slice/1/2 cup 78 2 16 2 1.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0 0.4 0.02
   Other grains 1 slice/1/2 cup 84 2 16 1 1.1 0.3 0.4 0.4 1 0.3 0.03
     
MEAT AND BEANS 1 ounce 58 8 0 0 2.7 0.8 1.1 0.4 36 0.4 0.02
     
MILK5 1 cup 83 8 12 0 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 5 0.0 0.00
     
Oils/soft Margarines 100 g 838 0 0 0 94.8 14.3 32.7 43.4 0 39.9 3.48
     
Solid Fats 100 g 758 0 0 0 85.4 36.1 32.7 12.5 115 11.0 1.40
     
Added Sugars 4 grams/1 tsp. 16 0 4 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.00
 

Notes for Table D1-15:

1. A Nutrient Profile is the nutrient content of a standardized amount of food from each food group or subgroup. It is calculated based on a weighted average of all foods in the group or subgroup eaten by Americans, as reported in the 1999-2000 NHANES survey. Weights for the nutrient profiles are determined from the relative amounts reported to have been consumed of each food in a particular group or subgroup. Nutrient values for each food group or subgroup have been calculated using values from USDA Nutrient Data Base, SR16-1.

2. The Standard Amount is an amount used in calculating nutrient profiles. It is expressed in volume or weight-equivalent measures. For the major food groups, it represents the amount in one "Pyramid serving" of the food. Serving equivalents for common foods in each group are listed in Note 2 to Table D1-10.

3. Vitamin A is expressed in g RAE, vitamin E in mg AT. These units are used in the recent Dietary Reference Intakes reports. When values for a food were not available in these units, existing units were converted to obtain an estimate. Vitamin A from carotenoid sources (fruits and vegetables) expressed in g RE was divided by 2 to obtain an estimate of vitamin A in g RAE. Vitamin E expressed in mg ATE was multiplied by 0.8 to obtain an estimate of vitamin E in mg AT.

4. The nutrient profiles for whole grains and other grains include some added nutrients from moderately fortified ready-to-eat cereals. Moderately fortified ready-to-eat cereals were included as part of the nutrient profiles because of their widespread use among Americans.

5. The nutrient profile for the Milk Group is based on the nutrients in fat-free fluid milk.

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Table D1-16. Nutrients in USDA Revised Food Intake Patterns
Page 1, vitamins

Shown in amounts and percents of RDA, AI, or other recommendation.

 
CALORIE LEVEL VIT. A
mcg RAE/% RDA
VIT. E
mg AT/% RDA
VIT. C
mg/% RDA
THIAMIN
mg/% RDA
RIBOFL.
mg/% RDA
NIACIN
mg/% RDA
VIT. B6
mg/% RDA
FOLATE
g/% RDA
VIT. B12
g/% RDA
1000 471 3.9 83 1.0 1.5 10.0 1.1 264 4
% REC--1 to 3 157 66 551 198 304 166 222 176 467
1200 610 5.5 93 1.3 1.7 13.7 1.4 344 5
% REC--4 to 8 152 79 370 211 291 171 240 172 410
1400 668 6.2 123 1.5 2.0 17.2 1.7 413 6
% REC--4 to 8 167 88 491 253 327 215 291 207 470
1600 871 7.3 131 1.8 2.5 19.6 2.1 495 7.6
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 145 66 291 197 283 163 208 165 422
% REC--F 51 to 70 124 49 174 161 231 140 139 124 317
1800 1013 8.2 144 2.0 2.7 21.5 2.2 580 7.7
% REC--F 31-50 145 55 192 181 245 153 173 145 319
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 169 75 320 221 299 179 225 193 425
% REC--F 14-18 145 55 222 199 269 153 187 145 319
2000 1057 9.0 174 2.1 2.8 22.8 2.4 610 7.9
% REC--F 19-30 151 60 232 190 252 163 186 153 331
% REC--M 51-70 117 60 193 174 213 142 142 153 331
2200 1093 9.7 181 2.3 2.9 26.0 2.7 663 8.4
% REC--M 31-50 121 65 201 194 226 162 211 166 349
% REC--M 14-18 121 65 242 194 226 162 211 166 349
2400 1132 10.1 182 2.5 3.1 28.2 2.9 702 9
% REC--M 19-30 126 68 202 207 237 176 222 176 367
2600 1239 11.0 189 2.7 3.2 30.1 3.1 767 9
% REC--M 19-30 138 73 210 224 248 188 238 192 374
2800 1285 11.7 219 2.9 3.4 32.7 3.3 835 9
% REC--M 14-18 143 78 292 243 262 205 257 209 392
3000 1322 13 227 3 3 34 3 850 9
% REC--M 19-30 147 87 252 248 264 210 269 212 392
3200 1346 14 227 3 3 34 3 850 9
% REC--M 14-18 150 94 302 248 265 210 269 212 393

Table D1-16, (cont’d.). Nutrients in Revised USDA Food Intake Patterns.
Page 2, minerals

Shown in amounts and percents of RDA, AI, or other recommendation.

CALORIE LEVEL CALCIUM
mg/% AI
PHOSPH.
mg/% RDA
MAGNES.
mg/% RDA
IRON
mg/% RDA
ZINC
mg/% RDA
COPPER
mg/% RDA
SODIUM
mg/% UL
POTASS.
mg/% RDA
1000 791 909 184 7 6 1 823 2053
% REC--1 to 3 158 198 230 107 215 195 62 68
1200 854 1075 229 10 8 1 1194 2442
% REC--4 to 8 107 215 176 102 167 200 63 64
1400 902 1217 269 12.5 10.0 1.1 1437 2844
% REC--4 to 8 113 243 207 125 200 240 76 75
1600 1253 1615 340 14.6 12.9 1.3 1653 3589
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 96 129 142 182 161 181 75 80
% REC--F 51 to 70 104 231 106 182 161 141 72 76
1800 1317 1693 368 16.7 13.5 1.4 1845 3853
% REC--F 31-50 132 242 115 93 168 158 80 82
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 101 135 153 208 168 203 84 86
% REC--F 14-18 101 135 102 111 150 160 80 82
2000 1333 1746 386 17.3 14.1 1.5 1910 4154
% REC--F 19-30 133 249 125 96 176 169 83 88
% REC--M 51-70 111 249 92 216 128 169 83 88
2200 1376 1875 425 19.4 15.4 1.7 2110 4525
% REC--M 31-50 138 268 101 242 140 191 92 96
% REC--M 14-18 106 150 104 176 140 194 92 96
2400 1409 1965 446 21 16 2 2298 4624
% REC--M 19-30 141 281 112 263 149 201 100 98
2600 1461 2064 480 23 17 2 2464 4906
% REC--M 19-30 146 295 120 290 157 220 107 104
2800 1507 2175 516 25 18 2 2651 5261
% REC--M 14-18 116 174 126 229 167 240 115 112
3000 1521 2209 531 26 19 2 2697 5496
% REC--M 19-30 152 316 133 321 170 249 117 117
3200 1522 2210 531 26 19 2 2711 5497
% REC--M 14-18 117 177 130 233 170 253 118 117

Table D1-16, (cont’d.). Nutrients in Revised USDA Food Intake Patterns.
Page 3, macronutrients

Shown in amounts and percents of RDA, AI, or other recommendation.

CALORIE LEVEL CALORIES
kcal/% goal
PROTEIN
g/% RDA
CARBOHY.
g/% RDA
FIBER
g/% AI
Linoleic Acid
mg/% AI
a-linolenic acid
mg/% AI
CHOLESTEROL
mg/% DV
1000 993 44 140 Est. total
13
8 1 100
% REC--1 to 3 99 336 108 94 108 109 33
1200 1234 56 171 18 11 1 134
% REC--4 to 8 103 294 131 104 109 117 45
1400 1458 67 204 21 12.1 1.2 172
% REC--4 to 8 104 350 157 107 121 130 57
1600 1672 86 227 26 13.5 1.3 212
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 104 254 175 114 113 110 71
% REC--F 51 to 70 104 188 175 114 123 120 71
1800 1839 91 256 29 14.8 1.5 214
% REC--F 31-50 102 198 197 115 124 134 71
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 102 267 197 115 124 123 71
% REC--F 14-18 102 198 197 115 135 134 71
2000 1994 96 278 31 16.2 1.6 236
% REC--F 19-30 100 208 214 111 135 147 79
% REC--M 51-70 100 171 214 111 116 101 79
2200 2217 103 313 35 18.1 1.8 256
% REC--M 31-50 101 184 241 112 107 111 85
% REC--M 14-18 101 199 241 112 113 111 85
2400 2390 109 337 37 19.4 1.9 278
% REC--M 19-30 100 195 259 109 114 119 93
2600 2584 114 372 41 21.1 2.1 280
% REC--M 19-30 99 203 286 112 124 129 93
2800 2813 121 413 44 22.5 2.2 298
% REC--M 14-18 100 232 318 112 141 137 99
3000 3023 122 441 46 26 3 304
% REC--M 19-30 101 218 340 109 152 157 101
3200 3202 122 467 46 29 3 309
% REC--M 14-18 100 235 359 104 180 174 103

Table D1-16, (cont’d.). Nutrients in Revised USDA Food Intake Patterns.
Page 4, macronutrients

Shown in amounts and percents of RDA, AI, or other recommendation.

CALORIE LEVEL CALORIES
kcal/% goal
PROTEIN
g/% kcal
CARBOHY.
g/% kcal
TOTAL FAT
g/% kcal
SAT. FAT
g/% kcal
MONO. FAT
g/% kcal
POLY. FAT
g/% kcal
Linoleic
Acid
g/% kcal
a-linolenic acid
g/% kcal
1000 993 44 140 31.3 9.5 11.5 8.4 7.6 0.8
% REC--1 to 3 99 18 56 28 8.6 10 9 7.9 0.7
1200 1234 56 171 39.5 10.5 14.4 12.0 10.9 1.1
% REC--4 to 8 103 18 55 29 7.7 10 8 7.5 0.7
1400 1458 67 204 45.3 12.1 16.5 13.4 12.1 1.2
% REC--4 to 8 104 18 56 28 7.5 10 8 7.5 0.7
1600 1672 86 227 50.6 13.6 18.5 15.0 13.5 1.3
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 104 21 54 27 7.3 10 8 7.3 0.7
% REC--F 51 to 70 104 21 54 27 7.3 10 8 7.3 0.7
1800 1839 91 256 54.8 14.5 19.9 16.5 14.8 1.5
% REC--F 31-50 102 20 56 27 7.1 10 8 7.3 0.7
% REC--M/F 9 to 13 102 20 56 27 7.1 10 8 7.3 0.7
% REC--F 14-18 102 20 56 27 7.1 10 8 7.3 0.7
2000 1994 96 278 60.8 16.4 22.1 18.0 16.2 1.6
% REC--F 19-30 100 19 56 27 7.4 10 8 7.3 0.7
% REC--M 51-70 100 19 56 27 7.4 10 8 7.3 0.7
2200 2217 103 313 67.1 17.8 24.4 20.1 18.1 1.8
% REC--M 31-50 101 19 56 27 7.2 10 8 7.3 0.7
% REC--M 14-18 101 19 56 27 7.2 10 8 7.3 0.7
2400 2390 109 337 73.0 19.7 26.6 21.5 19.4 1.9
% REC--M 19-30 100 18 56 28 7.4 10 8 7.3 0.7
2600 2584 114 372 78.1 20.7 28.3 23.4 21.1 2.1
% REC--M 19-30 99 18 58 27 7.2 10 8 7.4 0.7
2800 2813 121 413 82.6 21.7 29.9 24.9 22.5 2.2
% REC--M 14-18 100 17 59 26 6.9 10 8 7.2 0.7
3000 3023 122 441 93.7 24.5 33.9 28.6 25.9 2.5
% REC--M 19-30 101 16 58 28 7.3 10 9 7.7 0.7
3200 3202 122 467 102.8 26.8 37.1 31.7 28.8 2.8
% REC--M 14-18 100 15 58 29 7.5 10 9 8.1 0.8

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Table D1-17. Summary of the Nutrient Contributions of Each Food Group, Averaged Over Food Patterns at All Energy Levels.

Food Group Major contribution(s)1 Substantial contribution(s)
(>10% of total)2
Fruit Group Vitamin C Thiamin
Vitamin B6
Folate
Magnesium
Copper
Potassium
Carbohydrate
Fiber
Vegetable Group Vitamin A
Potassium
Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Thiamin
Niacin
Vitamin B6Folate
Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Iron
Zinc
Copper
Carbohydrate
Fiber
Alpha-linolenic acid
Vegetable Subgroups:  
--Dark green vegetables   Vitamin A
Vitamin C
--Orange vegetables Vitamin A  
--Legumes   Folate
Copper
Fiber
--Starchy vegetables   Vitamin B6
Copper
--Other vegetables   Vitamin C
Grain Group Thiamin
Folate
Magnesium
Iron
Copper
Carbohydrate
Fiber
Vitamin A
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Calcium
Phosphorus
Zinc
Potassium
Protein
Linoleic acid
Alpha-linolenic acid
Grain Subgroups:  
--Whole grains Folate(tie)
Magnesium
Iron
Copper
Carbohydrate(tie)
Fiber
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Phosphorus
Zinc
Protein
--Enriched grains Folate(tie)
Thiamin
Carbohydrate(tie)
Riboflavin
Niacin
Iron
Copper
Meat, poultry, fish, eggs,
and nuts group
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Zinc
Protein
Vitamin E
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Vitamin B12
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Iron
Copper
Potassium
Linoleic acid
Milk group Riboflavin
Vitamin B12
Calcium
Phosphorus
Vitamin A
Thiamin
Vitamin B6
Magnesium
Zinc
Potassium
Carbohydrate
Protein
Milk group Vitamin E
Linoleic acid
Alpha-linolenic acid
 
Oils and soft margarines Vitamin E
Linoleic acid
Alpha-linolenic acid
 
 

1 Major contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides more of the nutrient than any other single food group, averaged over all calorie levels. When two food groups or subgroups provide equal amounts, it is noted as a tie.

2 A substantial contribution means that the food group or subgroup provides 10% or more of the total amount of the nutrient in the food patterns, averaged over all calorie levels.

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Table D1-18. Comparison of Selected Nutrients in the DASHa Diet, the Revised USDA Food Intake Patterns, and Nutrient Intake Recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM).

 
Nutrientb DASH Dietc
(2100 kcals)
USDA Food Intake
Patterns
(2000 & 2200 kcals)
IOM
Recommendations
RDA/AI/AMDRd
Protein, g 94.3 96-103 56
Protein, % kcal 18 19 10-35%
Carbohydrate, g 306 278-313 130
Carbohydrate, % kcal 58 56 45-65%
Total fat, g 63.1 60.8-67.1 -
Total fat, % kcal 27 27 20-35%
Saturated fat, g 14.4 16.4-17.8 -
Saturated fat, % kcal 6.2 7.4-7.2 ALAPe
Monounsaturate fat, g 25.9 22.1-24.4 -
Monounsaturated fat, % kcal 11 10 -
Polyunsaturate fat, g 18.1 18-20.1 18.6f
Polyunsaturated fat, % kcal 7.8 8.0 5.5-11%g
Cholesterol, mg 128 236-256 ALAPe
Total dietary fiber, g 30 31-35 29h
Potassium, mg 4538 4154-4525 4700
Sodium, mg 1150* 1900-2110 1500
Magnesium, mg 498 386-425 320
Calcium, mg 1260 1333-1376 1000
Zinc, mg 12.1 17.3-15.4 11.0
Thiamin, mg 1.7 2.1-2.3 1.2
Riboflavin, mg 2.1 2.8-2.9 1.3
Niacin, mg 24.1 22.8-26.0 16.0
Vitamin B6, mg 2.8 2.4-2.7 1.3
Vitamin B12, g 3.8 7.9-8.4 2.4
Vitamin C, mg 300 174-181 90
Vitamin E, mg ATi 11.6i 9.0-9.7i 15i
 

Adapted from and reprinted with permission, from Craddick et al. (2003). Copyright (2003) by Current Science, Inc.
aDASH= Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.
bOnly nutrients analyzed in the DASH studies are included. Nutrients not analyzed but for which RDAs or AIs have been established (IOM 1997; 1998; 2000b; 2001; 2002; 2004): chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, folate, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.
cIn the DASH-Sodium trial, the average sodium intake was 1.5 g (65 mmol)as estimated by mean urinary excretion. The sodium intake of each participant was indexed to calorie level (0.9 to 1.8 g/d corresponding to 1600 to 3600 kcal/d) (Svetkey et al, 1999a).
dAverage of recommended intake for young adult men and women; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; AI = Adequate Intake; AMDR=Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range.
eAs low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet.
fAI for men for n-3 fatty acids = 1.6 g; for n-6 fatty acids = 17 g; total = 18.6 g.
gn-3 fatty acids = 0.5-1.0 % of kcal; n-6 fatty acids = 5-10% of kcal.
hAmount listed is based on 14 g dietary fiber/1000 kcal.
iVitamin E RDA is 15 mg d-α-tocopherol (AT); 1 mg ~ 1.2 mg d-α-tocopherol equivalents (ATE). DASH diet contains 14.0 mg ATE, converted here to mg AT for comparability with AI and USDA food patterns.
*The DASH diet has been studied at several different sodium levels. The sodium level of 1150 mg corresponds to the target for the lowest level in the DASH Sodium trial. The actual level provided, based on 24-hour urinary excretion, was 1500 mg (65 mmol).

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Table D1-19. Comparison of Various Sources of Calcium, Considering Bioavailability.

 
Foods Serving
Size1 (g)
Calcium
Content2
(mg/serving) (g)
Estimated
absorption
Efficiency3
%
Number of
Servings to equal
1 cup milk
Food Amount to equal
calcium in 1 cup milk
Reference
Foods without added calcium:  
Milk 240 300 32.1 1.0 1.0 cups Nickel, 1996
Beans, pinto 86 44.7 26.7 8.1 4.1 cups Weaver, 1993
Beans, red 172 40.5 24.4 9.7 9.7 cups Weaver, 1993
Beans, white 110 113 21.8 3.9 2.0 cups Weaver, 1993
Bok Choy 85 79 53.8 2.3 1.2 cups Heaney, 1993
Broccoli 71 35 61.3 4.5 2.3 cups Heaney, 1993
Cheddar Cheese 42 303 32.1 1.0 1.5 oz Nickel, 1996
Cheddar food 42 241 32.1 1.2 1.8 oz Nickel, 1996
Chinese Cabbage Flower leaves 85 239 39.6 1.0 0.5 cups Weaver, 1997
Chinese Mustard green 85 212 40.2 1.1 0.6 cups Weaver, 1997
Chinese Spinach 85 347 8.36 3.3 1.7 cups Weaver, 1997
Kale 85 61 49.3 3.2 1.6 cups Heaney & Weaver, 1990
Spinach 85 115 5.1 6.3 3.2 cups Heaney, 1988
Sugar cookies 15 3 91.9 34.9 35 cookies Weaver, 1991
Sweet Potatoes 164 44 22.2 9.8 4.9 cups Weaver, 1997
Rhubarb 120 174 8.5 9.5 9.5 cups Weaver, 1997
Whole wheat bread 28 20 82.0 5.8 5.8 slices Weaver, 1991
Whole bran cereal 28 20 38.0 12.8 12.8 oz Weaver, 1991
Yogurt 240 300 32.1 1.0 1.0 cups Nickel, 1993
Foods with added calcium:  
Tofu, calcium set 126 258 31.0 1.2 0.6 cups Weaver, 1997
OJ with Ca citrate malate 240 300 36.3 0.9 0.9 cups Heaney, 1990a
Soy milk w/ tricalcium phosphate 240 300 24.0 1.3 1.3 cups Heaney, 2000
Bread w/ calcium sulfate 17 300 43.0 0.7 1 thin slice Martin, 2002
 

1 Based on 1/2 cup serving size (~ 85g for green leafy vegetables) except for milk and fruit punch (1 cup or 240 mL) and cheese (1.5 oz).
2 Taken from Pennington (1989) and USDA (1989), averaged for beans and broccoli processed in different ways, except for the Chinese vegetables which were taken from Heaney, et al. (1993).
3 Adjusted for load using the equation for milk (fractional absorption =0.889-0.0964 ln load) (Heaney et al., 1990) then adjusting for the ratio of calcium absorption of the test food relative to milk tested at the same load, the absorptive index.

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Table D1-20 Nutrients* Provided by 3 Cups of 1% Milk.

 
Nutrient Amount of
nutrient
Amount of nutrient as percent of
requirement for female ages 31-50
Calcium 871 mg 87% AI
Vitamin D (in N. America) 380 UI 38% of target goal of 1000IU
Vitamin A 425 mcg RAE 61% RDA
Phosphorous 695 mg 99% RDA
Protein 24.7 54% RDA
Potassium 1098 mg 28% AI
Magnesium 81 mg 25% RDA
 

*Nutrients Provided if Daily Recommended Amounts from Milk Group (3 cup equivalents) are Consumed as 3 Cups of 1% Milk

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Table D1-21. Difference Between Recommended Calcium Intakes and Calcium Provided by the Food Patterns if Milk Products are Excluded.

 
Calorie
Level
Age/sex
group
Milk Group
Servings
Calcium in pattern
without milk group
mg
Calcium
recommendation
mg
Calcium
difference
mg
1000  
M/F 2 to 3
2 179  
500
 
321
1200  
M/F 4 to 8
2 241  
800
 
559
1400  
M/F 4 to 8
2 290  
800
 
510
1600  
F 9 to 13
F 51 to 70
3 335 1300
1200
965
865
1800  
F 31-50
M 9 to 13
F 14-18
3 399 1000
1300
1300
665
901
901
2000  
F 19-30
M 51-70
3 415 1000
1200
585
785
2200  
M 31-50
M 14-18
3 457 1000
1300
543
843
2400  
M 19-30
3 490 1000 510
2600  
M 19-30
3 543 1000 457
2800  
M 14-18
3 588 1300 712
3000  
M 19-30
3 603 1000 397
3200  
M 14-18
3 604 1300 696
 

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Table D1-22. Food Sources of Iron.

Table D1-22a. Food sources of iron ranked by milligrams of iron per standard amount; also calories in the standard amount. (All are ≥10% of RDA for teen and adult females, which is 18 mg.)

 
Food, Standard Amount Iron
(mg)1
Calories
Clams, canned, drained, 3 ounces 23.8 126
Fortified ready-to-eat cereals
(various), 3/4 to 1-1/3 cup
4.2-18.1 74-120
Oysters, eastern, wild, cooked, moist
cooked, 3 ounces
10.2 116
Organ meats (liver, giblets), various,
cooked, 3 ounces
5.2-9.9 134-276
Fortified instant cooked cereals
(various), 1 packet
4.9-8.1 Varies
Turkey giblets, cooked, 3 ounces 6.6 169
Soybeans, mature, cooked, 1/2 cup 4.4 149
Pumpkin & squash seed kernels,
roasted, 1 ounce
4.2 148
Sesame seeds, roasted and toasted,1
ounce
4.2 160
White beans, canned, 1/2 cup 3.9 153
Blackstrap molasses, 1 tablespoon 3.5 47
Lentils, cooked, 1/2 cup 3.3 115
Spinach, cooked from fresh, 1/2 cup 3.2 21
Beef, chuck, blade roast, lean,
cooked, 3 ounces
3.1 215
Beef, bottom round, lean, 0" fat, all
grades, cooked, 3 ounces
2.9 173
Beef, top sirloin, lean, 0", all
grades, cooked, 3 ounces
2.9 162
Kidney beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.6 112
Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 3
ounces
2.5 177
Beef, rib, lean, 1/2" fat, all grades, 3
ounces
2.4 195
Chickpeas, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.4 134
Duck, meat only, roasted, 3 ounces 2.3 171
Lamb, shoulder, arm, lean, 1/4" fat,
choice, cooked, 3 ounces
2.3 237
Navy beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.3 129
Prune juice, 3/4 cup 2.3 136
Shrimp, canned, 3 ounces 2.3 102
Cowpeas, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.2 100
Ground beef, 15% fat, cooked, 3
ounces
2.2 212
Lima beans, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.2 108
Soybeans, cooked, 1/2 cup 2.2 127
Tomato puree, 1/2 cup 2.2 48
Refried beans, 1/2 cup 2.1 118
Tomato paste, 1/4 cup 2.0 54
 

Table D1-22b. Food sources of iron as consumed by Americans2 (Percent of total consumption, CSFII, 1994-1996)

 
Food Percent of total3
Ready-to-eat cereal 16.9
Yeast bread 13.1
Beef 8.5
Cakes/cookies/quick
breads/doughnuts
4.2
Pasta 3.7
Flour/baking ingredients 3.2
Dried beans/lentils 3.1
Poultry 3.0
Potatoes(white) 2.6
Hot breakfast cereal 2.4
Rice/cooked grains 2.4
Tomatoes 2.4
Fish/shellfish (excluding canned
tuna)
2.0

  1 Source: ARS Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1. Mixed dishes and multiple preparations of the same food item have been omitted.
2 Source: Cotton et al. 2004. Data are for persons aged 19 years and older, Day 1 intakes
3 Food groups (n=8) contributing at least 1% in descending order: eggs, crackers/pretzels, meal replacements/protein supplements, tortillas/tacos, potato chips/corn chips/popcorn, orange/grapefruit juice, pancakes/waffles/French toast, and coffee.

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Table D1-23. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Values by Seasonal Subpopulation in the Contiguous U.S.

 
Latitude and season n   Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (nmol/L)
  Mean <25 <37.5 <50 <62.5
Age (y)   % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI % 95% CI
(A) Winter/lower latitude subpopulation (November-March, median latitude 32N, range 25-47N)
Male  
12-19 625 78.6 1 0,2.2 5 2.4,8.0 13 7.7,17.4 25 17,32
20-39 1289 69.1 2 1.1,3.3 12 9.2,15.0 26 21.1,29.9 43 37,49
40-59 864 70.6 2 0.6,3.1 9 5.8,11.9 22 16.6,26.8 39 32,46
60-79 827 72.5 1 0.2,2.2 7 4.4,10.2 18 12.7,22.3 38 31,46
80+ 204 68.7 3 0,6.3 12 4.3,18.8 26 14.7,37.6 47 31,62
Female  
12-19 699 64.9 4 3.0,5.9 12 7.8,16.3 29 22.8,34.5 47 39,55
20-39 1459 62.7 5 3.4,6.4 19 15.6,22.7 40 35.4,44.2 55 50,61
40-59 959 61.6 3 1.8,5.0 17 13.2,21.7 39 33.2,44.0 57 50,63
60-79 757 63.5 5 2.5,6.6 15 10.9,20.0 36 30.1,42.0 52 45,59
80+ 208 59.6 5 1.1,9.7 18 8.5,27.3 37 25.2,48.4 56 42,69
(B) Summer/higher latitude subpopulation (April-October, median latitude 39N, range 25-47N)
Male  
12-19 741 89.5 <1 - 2 0.7,3.0 8 5.2,11.0 21 15.8,25.4
20-39 1621 85.3 <1 - 3 1.8,3.9 11 8.6,13.1 24 20.1,27.0
40-59 1122 78.8 1 0.5,1.7 5 3.2,6.3 14 11.3,17.3 29 24.6,33.3
60-79 1072 76.8 <1 - 4 2.7,5.7 14 11.2,17.3 32 27.7,37.0
80+ 349 69.5 1 0,2.5 7 4.0,10.8 19 12.8,24.9 37 28.9,45.7
Female  
12-19 844 80.5 <1 - 6 3.4,7.9 13 9.5,17.0 28 22.4,34.1
20-39 1964 81.6 2 1.0,2.4 8 5.9,9.2 18 14.8,20.3 30 26.1,33.9
40-59 1264 68.6 2 0.9,2.7 10 7.9,12.6 26 22.3,30.3 45 40.1,50.6
60-79 1200 65.6 2 1.1,3.1 10 7.8,12.6 29 24.6,33.0 49 43.5,54.4
80+ 394 61.8 3 0.8,4.7 12 7.4,16.6 34 26.7,42.3 58 49.0,67.9

CI = Confidence Interval

Source: Looker et al., 2002

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Table D1-24. Food Sources of Vitamin D.

Food item g vitamin D IU vitamin D
Fish 5-15/100 g 200-600/100 g
Fortified milk 2.5/cup 100/cup
Vitamin D fortified juice 2.5/cup 100/cup
Vitamin D fortified cereals 1 - 1.5/cup 40 - 60/cup
Vitamin D fortified breakfast bars 2.5/bar 100/bar
 

Source: Raiten DJ and MF Picciano (Co-chairs). Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: Bone and Beyond. A conference conducting by the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland on October 9-10, 2003. Accessed at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/prip/ on 2 August 2004.

 

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Continue to Part D. Science Base, Section 2. Energy