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Physical Activity Guidelines

Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report
Part G. Section 9: Youth

Table G9.A6. Body Composition, Experimental Studies — Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents.
Part 1. Randomized Controlled Trials

Reference Sample/Duration Results
Gutin et al., 1997 (1) N=35, 66% F, 7-11 years, Duration: 4 months Decrease in percent fat
Owens et al., 1999 (2) N=74, 66% F, 7-11 years, Duration: 4 months Significant decrease in percent fat
Gutin et al., 2002 (3) N=80, 68% F, 13-16 years, 69% AA Lifestyle Education and Training vs. Lifestyle Education alone, Duration: 8 months Significantly greater decrease in percent fat and visceral adipose tissue with Lifestyle Education and Training
Balagopal et al., 2005 (4) N=21, 48% F, about 16 years, Duration: 3 months Experimental group decreased percent fat -6.3%, increased fat-free mass 6.3 kg
Yin et al., 2005 (5)Group Randomized Trial N=447, 3rd graders, 61% AA, Duration: 8 months Decrease in percent fat significantly different between groups
Yin et al., 2005 (6) Group Randomized Trial N=278, 3rd graders, 61 AA, Duration: 8 months Significant negative correlation between attendance and decrease in percent fat
Goldfield et al., 2006 (7) N=30, 47% F, 8-12 years, 72% AA, Duration: 8 weeks Small effect on BMI
Meyer et al., 2006 (8) N=131, 51% F, 11-16 years, Duration: 6 months Significant decline in BMI, small change in percent fat, waist-to-hip ratio
Barbeau et al., 2007 (9) 100% F, 8-12 years, 100% AA, Duration: 10 months Change in percent fat significantly different between groups

AA, African American; BMI, body mass index; F, female; N, number

Table G9.A6. Body Composition, Experimental Studies — Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents.
Part 2. Non-Randomized Controlled Trials

Reference Sample/Duration Results

Gutin et al., 1996 (10)

N=22, 100% F, 7-11 years, AA, Duration: 10 weeks

Significant but small change in percent fat

Treuth et al., 1998 (11)

N=22, 100% F, 7-10 years, 91% white, Duration: 5 months

Minimal effects of strength training on weight and adiposity

Treuth et al., 1998 (12)

N=22, 100% F, 7-10 years, 91% white, Duration: 5 months

Minimal effects of strength training on weight and adiposity, no change visceral adipose tissue

Cotton et al., 2006 (13)

N=26, 69% F, 8-18 years, 100% AA, Duration: 12 weeks

No change in BMI

BMI, body mass index; F, female; N, number

Table G9.A6. Body Composition, Experimental Studies — Overweight/Obese Children and Adolescents.
Part 3. Before-and-After Studies (i.e., No Control Group)

Reference Sample/Duration Results
Nassis et al., 2005 (14) N=19, 100% F, 9-15 years, Duration: 12 weeks Minimal changes in BMI, fat-free mass, percent fat, visceral adipose tissue
Monzavi et al., 2006 (15) N=109, 45% F, mean age=11.5&±1.9 years, (43 completed intervention), Duration: 12 weeks Minimal changes in BMI, weight, height
Klijn et al., 2007 (16) N=15, 100% F, 14.7±2.1 year, Duration: 12 weeks Major declines in weight, BMI, percent fat, fat-free mass,861943 visceral adipose tissue

BMI, body mass index; F, female; N, number

Reference List

  1. Gutin B, Owens S, Slavens G, Riggs S, Treiber F. Effect of physical training on heart-period variability in obese children. J.Pediatr. 1997 Jun;130(6):938-43.
  2. Owens S, Gutin B, Allison J, Riggs S, Ferguson M, Litaker M, Thompson W. Effect of physical training on total and visceral fat in obese children. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1999 Jan;31(1):143-8.
  3. Gutin B, Barbeau P, Owens S, Lemmon CR, Bauman M, Allison J, Kang HS, Litaker MS. Effects of exercise intensity on cardiovascular fitness, total body composition, and visceral adiposity of obese adolescents. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002 May;75(5):818-26.
  4. Balagopal P, George D, Patton N, Yarandi H, Roberts WL, Bayne E, Gidding S. Lifestyle-only intervention attenuates the inflammatory state associated with obesity: a randomized controlled study in adolescents. J.Pediatr. 2005 Mar;146(3):342-8.
  5. Yin Z, Gutin B, Johnson MH, Hanes J, Jr., Moore JB, Cavnar M, Thornburg J, Moore D, Barbeau P. An environmental approach to obesity prevention in children: Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project year 1 results. Obes.Res. 2005 Dec;13(12):2153-61.
  6. Yin Z, Moore JB, Johnson MH, Barbeau P, Cavnar M, Thornburg J, Gutin B. The Medical College of Georgia Fitkid project: the relations between program attendance and changes in outcomes in year 1. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2005 Sep;29 Suppl 2:S40-S45.
  7. Goldfield GS, Mallory R, Parker T, Cunningham T, Legg C, Lumb A, Parker K, Prud'homme D, Gaboury I, Adamo KB. Effects of open-loop feedback on physical activity and television viewing in overweight and obese children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2006 Jul;118(1):e157-e166.
  8. Meyer AA, Kundt G, Lenschow U, Schuff-Werner P, Kienast W. Improvement of early vascular changes and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children after a six-month exercise program. J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 2006 Nov 7;48(9):1865-70.
  9. Barbeau P, Johnson MH, Howe CA, Allison J, Davis CL, Gutin B, Lemmon CR. Ten months of exercise improves general and visceral adiposity, bone, and fitness in black girls. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2007 Aug;15(8):2077-85.
  10. Gutin B, Cucuzzo N, Islam S, Smith C, Stachura ME. Physical training, lifestyle education, and coronary risk factors in obese girls. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):19-23.
  11. Treuth MS, Hunter GR, Pichon C, Figueroa-Colon R, Goran MI. Fitness and energy expenditure after strength training in obese prepubertal girls. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1998 Jul;30(7):1130-6.
  12. Treuth MS, Hunter GR, Figueroa-Colon R, Goran MI. Effects of strength training on intra-abdominal adipose tissue in obese prepubertal girls. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1998 Dec;30(12):1738-43.
  13. Cotton B, Smith A, Hansen I, Davis C, Doyle A, Walsh A. Physician-directed primary care intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in high-risk youth. Am.J.Med.Sci. 2006 Sep;332(3):108-11.
  14. Nassis GP, Papantakou K, Skenderi K, Triandafillopoulou M, Kavouras SA, Yannakoulia M, Chrousos GP, Sidossis LS. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls. Metabolism 2005 Nov;54(11):1472-9.
  15. Monzavi R, Dreimane D, Geffner ME, Braun S, Conrad B, Klier M, Kaufman FR. Improvement in risk factors for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in overweight youth who are treated with lifestyle intervention. Pediatrics 2006 Jun;117(6):e1111-e1118.
  16. Klijn PH, van der Baan-Slootweg OH, van Stel HF. Aerobic exercise in adolescents with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test. BMC.Pediatr. 2007;7:19.

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