Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report
Part G. Section 9: Youth

Table G9.A4. Body Composition, Prospective Cohort Studies

Reference

Subjects/Follow-up

Results

Moore et al., 1995 (1)

N=97, 4 years, Follow-up: to 1st grade

Children with low levels of PA gained more fat, but not strong effect

Luepker et al., 1996 (2)

N=4,019, 3rd-5th graders, Follow-up: 2 years

CATCH school-based intervention did not affect adiposity

Nader et al., 1999 (3)

N=3,714, 3rd, 5th, 8th graders, Follow-up: 3rd, 5th, 8th grade

CATCH school-based intervention did not affect adiposity

Berkey et al., 2000 (4)

N=10,769, 57% F, 9-14 years, 94% white, Follow‑up: 1 year

Small estimated changes in BMI

O’Loughlin, 2000 (5)

N=2,951, 51% F, 10.3 years, Follow‑up: 1 and 2 years

Suggest role for PA in prevention of excess weight gain

Berkey et al., 2003 (6)

N=10,896, 57% F, 9-14 years, 94% white, Follow‑up: 1 year

Small estimated changes in BMI

Bogaert et al., 2003 (7)

N=59 49% F, 6-9 years, Follow-up: 1 year

No correlation between time in PA and BMI

Crocker et al., 2003 (8)

N=631, 100% F, 15-16 years, Follow-up: 1 year

Low correlation between PA and BMI

Moore et al., 2003 (9)

N=103, 3-5 years, Follow-up: 8 years

Children with high levels of PA had less fat and lower BMI

Stevens et al., 2004 (10)

N=454, 49% F, 7.5±0.6 years, 100% American Indian, Follow‑up: 3 years

Higher PA associated with lower percent fat in normal weight but not in overweight

Elgar et al., 2005 (11)

N=355, 55% F, 11-14 years, Follow-up: 4 years

PA predicted change in BMI over time

Jago et al., 2005 (12)

N=133, 51% F, 3-4 years, 37% white, 37% AA, 26% Hispanic

Stronger impact of TV viewing than PA on BMI

Kettaneh et al., 2005 (13)

N=436, 49% F, 8-18 years, Follow-up: 2 years

Small effect of PA on adiposity measures in females, not males

Monda & Popkin, 2005 (14)

N=1,175, 46% F, 9.7±2.2 years, 100% Asian, Follow‑up: 3 years

Results indicate interaction of PA and inactivity as risk factors for overweight

Gidding et al., 2006 (15)

N=585, 45% F, 8-10 years, Follow-up: 3 years

Non-significant trend for lower BMI and time spent in intense PA

Mundt et al., 2006 (16)

N=217, 52% F, 8-15 years, 89% white, Follow‑up: 7 years

PA level negatively associated with fat mass development in males, not in Females

Rosenberg et al., 2006 (17)

N=1,083, 47% F, 4th-5th grade, 85% white, Follow‑up: 2 years

No relationship between active commuting and BMI change

Yang et al., 2006 (18)

N=1,319, 53% F, 9-39 years, Follow-up: 21 years

High levels of PA during youth associated with lower waist circumference in adult Females, not Males

Ekelund et al., 2007 (19)

N=28, 17-21 years, Follow-up: 4 years

Small percentage of variance in fat mass change explained by PA change in normal weight group

Li et al., 2007(20)

N=210, 54% F, 9-11 years, Follow-up: 8 months

Mixed results, small differences, perhaps a sex difference

O’Brien et al., 2007 (21)

N=653, 2-12 years, Follow-up: 10 years

Children with more PA and less TV were less likely to be overweight

AA, African American; BMI, body mass index; F, female; N, number; PA, physical activity

Reference List

  1. Moore LL, Nguyen US, Rothman KJ, Cupples LA, Ellison RC. Preschool physical activity level and change in body fatness in young children. The Framingham Children's Study. Am.J.Epidemiol. 1995 Nov 1;142(9):982-8.
  2. Luepker RV, Perry CL, McKinlay SM, Nader PR, Parcel GS, Stone EJ, Webber LS, Elder JP, Feldman HA, Johnson CC, et al. Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. CATCH collaborative group. JAMA 1996 Mar 13;275(10):768-76.
  3. Nader PR, Stone EJ, Lytle LA, Perry CL, Osganian SK, Kelder S, Webber LS, Elder JP, Montgomery D, Feldman HA, et al. Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: the CATCH cohort. Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med. 1999 Jul;153(7):695-704.
  4. Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, Gillman MW, Frazier AL, Camargo CA, Jr., Colditz GA. Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics 2000 Apr;105(4):E56.
  5. O'Loughlin J, Gray-Donald K, Paradis G, Meshefedjian G. One- and two-year predictors of excess weight gain among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low-income, inner-city neighborhoods. Am.J.Epidemiol. 2000 Oct 15;152(8):739-46.
  6. Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. One-year changes in activity and in inactivity among 10- to 15-year-old boys and girls: relationship to change in body mass index. Pediatrics 2003 Apr;111(4 Pt 1):836-43.
  7. Bogaert N, Steinbeck KS, Baur LA, Brock K, Bermingham MA. Food, activity and family--environmental vs biochemical predictors of weight gain in children. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003 Oct;57(10):1242-9.
  8. Crocker P, Sabiston C, Forrestor S, Kowalski N, Kowalski K, McDonough M. Predicting change in physical activity, dietary restraint, and physique anxiety in adolescent girls: examining covariance in physical self-perceptions. Can.J.Public Health 2003 Sep;94(5):332-7.
  9. Moore LL, Gao D, Bradlee ML, Cupples LA, Sundarajan-Ramamurti A, Proctor MH, Hood MY, Singer MR, Ellison RC. Does early physical activity predict body fat change throughout childhood? Prev.Med. 2003 Jul;37(1):10-7.
  10. Stevens J, Suchindran C, Ring K, Baggett CD, Jobe JB, Story M, Thompson J, Going SB, Caballero B. Physical activity as a predictor of body composition in American Indian children. Obes.Res. 2004 Dec;12(12):1974-80.
  11. Elgar FJ, Roberts C, Moore L, Tudor-Smith C. Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and weight problems in adolescents in Wales. Public Health 2005 Jun;119(6):518-24.
  12. Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Thompson D, Greaves KA. BMI from 3-6 y of age is predicted by TV viewing and physical activity, not diet. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2005 Jun;29(6):557-64.
  13. Kettaneh A, Oppert JM, Heude B, Deschamps V, Borys JM, Lommez A, Ducimetiere P, Charles MA. Changes in physical activity explain paradoxical relationship between baseline physical activity and adiposity changes in adolescent girls: the FLVS II study. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2005 Jun;29(6):586-93.
  14. Monda KL, Popkin BM. Cluster analysis methods help to clarify the activity-BMI relationship of Chinese youth. Obes.Res. 2005 Jun;13(6):1042-51.
  15. Gidding SS, Barton BA, Dorgan JA, Kimm SY, Kwiterovich PO, Lasser NL, Robson AM, Stevens VJ, Van HL, Simons-Morton DG. Higher self-reported physical activity is associated with lower systolic blood pressure: the Dietary Intervention Study in Childhood (DISC). Pediatrics 2006 Dec;118(6):2388-93.
  16. Mundt CA, Baxter-Jones AD, Whiting SJ, Bailey DA, Faulkner RA, Mirwald RL. Relationships of activity and sugar drink intake on fat mass development in youths. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2006 Jul;38(7):1245-54.
  17. Rosenberg DE, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Cain KL, McKenzie TL. Active transportation to school over 2 years in relation to weight status and physical activity. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2006 Oct;14(10):1771-6.
  18. Yang X, Telama R, Viikari J, Raitakari OT. Risk of obesity in relation to physical activity tracking from youth to adulthood. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2006 May;38(5):919-25.
  19. Ekelund U, Sarnblad S, Brage S, Ryberg J, Wareham NJ, Aman J. Does physical activity equally predict gain in fat mass among obese and nonobese young adults? Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2007 Jan;31(1):65-71.
  20. Li L, Li K, Ushijima H. Moderate-vigorous physical activity and body fatness in Chinese urban school children. Pediatr.Int. 2007 Apr;49(2):280-5.
  21. O'Brien M, Nader PR, Houts RM, Bradley R, Friedman SL, Belsky J, Susman E. The ecology of childhood overweight: a 12-year longitudinal analysis. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2007 Sep;31(9):1469-78.

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